Saturday, December 28, 2019

The Invisible Hand Is Make Up By Adam Smith - 1347 Words

CHAPTER# 1 QUESTION FOR REVIEW: 6.) The term invisible hand is make up by Adam Smith in wealth of nation, to describe the change in nature of marketplace without any interference of government, and it refers to maintain the equilibrium of supply and demand. Like we all driving, and we stop at red lights and go at green lights. Does anybody think, why we do so even there was nobody to stop us? You know we just obey rules and regulations for avoiding the accident. We desire to stop and go, for better future and to avoid dangerous accident. This is a good example of invisible hand. 8.) Productivity means how people of a country intelligently combined their available resources like labour, skills, capital equipment, and raw material, from each†¦show more content†¦13.) If Canadians started saving money, and bank lend this savings in opening new business which off course helps in raising economic growth and standard of living increased. Now government have enough money to do anything, like mention in question for free food. This will effect both, workers hourly wages increased and owner get better profit. 14.) Intelligent decision making mean one should know about the merits and demerits of the thing. If policymaker reduce the rate of inflation, it will leads to deflation- means reduction in general price level of goods and services. Chapter# 5 Questions for review: 5.) The four components of GDP are: †¢ Consumption, is spending done by householders on goods and services. For instance, the purchase of a sugar. †¢ Investment, is the purchase of future used goods for infinite production of goods and services. For example, the purchase of a computer by a business. †¢ Government spending, spending made by government on goods and services like, an order for military aircraft, and sale of American wheat to Russia. 6.) The reason why Economists use real GDP rather than nominal GDP to gauge economic well-being is that the real GDP doesn’t distressed by changes in prices, so it demonstrate only changes in

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Lifespan Development And Communication Development

Lifespan development and communication – 555101 Individual development narrative Rajbir Kaur 02/05/16 (1877) Introduction One way of looking at human development is through domains of development and how they interrelate. Sigleman and Rider (2003) define development as the systematic changes and continuities that occur between conception and death in an individual. One approach to examining human development is through an individual narrative by integrating theories of development. In this paper, the aim is to discuss the processes of and influences on my personal development from conception through to 18 years of age. Knowledge will be demonstrated relating to domains of development (physical, social, cognitive and emotional) and how they interrelate. These domains will be explained throughout 5 stages of development: perinatal, infancy, early childhood, school children and adolescence. Personal experiences will be linked to theories that have been formed by human development theorists. The analysis of my personal experiences will show how I have developed from the time I was conceived up until 18 year s of existence. It will also include descriptions of my family, friends and how the environment and people outside my home have influenced the way I have developed. Perinatal period Urie Bronfenbrenner’s ecological system theory of human development clarifies that everything in a child’s environment influences the way the child grows and developsShow MoreRelatedLifespan Development And Communication Development Essay1536 Words   |  7 Pages Paper: 555101 Lifespan Development and Communications Assessment 3: Individual Development Narrative (IDN) Hoori Wilcox Student ID: 14861456 This assignment identifies and discusses the relevant theory and theorists and discusses the influences possible on lifespan development from the time of conception to 20 years of age. I will analyse my own life story in relation to theories of lifespan development participating my understanding of the domains of development and the age old argumentRead MoreFour Areas of Communication990 Words   |  4 Pagesabout the four areas of communication: interpersonal, lifespan, health, and persuasive communication. I found these facts while searching on the internet using many different search engines. I will share these facts that caught my attention with you and let you know where you can learn more about these areas of communication. Interpersonal communication is when we engage in communication with another person, to gain information about them. This type of communication is different from otherRead MoreDevelopmental Tasks Of Adolescence And Development871 Words   |  4 PagesPhysical development, motor development, Cognitive development, information processing, and language development. Each child will undergo different physical changes in development according to our text Development Through The Lifespan, â€Å"Children grow slower in early childhood and they become longer and leaner† (216). Growth centers will emerge within the skeleton and as baby fat falls off, children gradually become thinner. Along with physical development the skeletal growth and brain development increasesRead MoreLifespan Development : Cognitive, And Personal And Social Development1717 Words   |  7 PagesLifespan Psychology Introduction Lifespan Development is the field of study that examines patterns, modes of growth, change, and stability in behavior that occur throughout the entire lifespan of an individual. There are so many things to keep in mind about Lifespan Psychology; 1. Lifespan Psychology is a scientific, developmental approach that focuses on human development. 2. Scientists who study the lifespan know that neither heredity nor environment alone can account for the full range of humanRead MoreEssay about Lifespan Development and Eriksons Stages of Development1644 Words   |  7 PagesLifespan development is essential, as it is the changes that happen to us throughout a person’s lifespan. Our development occurs at ages stages where we develop from infancy till death. This essay will contain my life story to display the domains in 5 age stages in my lifespan development. The domains I will be exploring is in this essay is physical, emotional, cognitive, social, cultural and moral domain. The influence of biological and environmental play a significant role in my development. DevelopmentRead MoreEssay on Parenting Styles and How They Affect Your Children951 Words   |  4 Pagesand achievement-oriented in school and get better grades than do children whose parents have other parenting styles† ( Lifespan: Development, 203). The permissive parenting style is one in which the parents care for their child, yet they don’t set rules or discipline their child. This parenting style is high in nurturance and low in maturity demands, control, and communication. According to Joseph Sclafani, a child psychologist,: Permissive-indulgent parents are often quite warm and acceptingRead MoreTrust vs Mistrust Essay1271 Words   |  6 Pageshaving the infant close to a mother’s skin is helpful for both breastfeeding and developing a close bond with the infant. It is this first initial bond between the mother and infant which leads to a sense of dependency on the parent and the initial development of trust (Child Youth Health 2010). Erik Erikson (1965) theorises ‘one of the primary developmental challenges for an infant to learn is whether their caregiver regularly satisfies their basic needs’ (cited in Candlin 2008 p.131). Failure byRead MoreSocial Development And Journey Towards Autonomy876 Words   |  4 Pagesdisorder and my mother realized we needed more open communication. Having open communication with in the family positively influenced our family structure, in ways I could never have imagined. Now I felt safe and secure in asking my mother everything; sex, love, school, whatever it be. Parent and child relationships are a key factor in an adolescences’ social development and journey towards autonomy. Our textbook, Exploring Lifespan development (Berk, 2010), states that â€Å"teenagers still need guidanceRead MoreLosing Isiah1556 Words   |  7 PagesEarly childhood is the most important phase of development in one’s lifespan as the experiences during childhood sets the cou rse for later stages of development. It has been noted that a mother’s actions during pregnancy may influence the development of an infant. The developmental influences include prenatal, perinatal and neonatal environments. (Santrock, 2002) Although babies come into the world with no say or control over which family they will be placed into, or the environment in which theyRead MoreEffective Communication And Communication Between The Doctor And Patient Based On The Fourth Clip1569 Words   |  7 PagesEffective communication is fundamental to delivering great patient care in healthcare settings. It is critically important to create an environment in which clients are able to express their needs and concerns, especially to alert health providers to unsafe situations. However, communication failures occur sometimes due to a series of inappropriate verbal and non-verbal communication, which finally lead to confusion or conflict. There are a number of effective techniques that can be used to resolve

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Poetry Is Driven By A Tension Between Essay Example For Students

Poetry Is Driven By A Tension Between Essay Yeats entertains the thought of living in Miniseries by use of sensual Imagery: live alone in the bee loud glade. This type of Imagery is further explored In he highly sensual Image: l hear lake water lapping with low sounds by the shore. Yeats appears haunted by this beautiful place as its as if the waters are calling him. Perhaps the starkest contrast in this poem is between the deferent colors of each location. The beautiful purple glow of the pastoral utopia of Miniseries contrasts the pavements grey of the dull concrete jungle. The poem closes with somewhat of an epiphany as it becomes clear to Yeats that he will never actually get to live in this perfect place: l hear it in the deep hearts core. Its what he wants the most but sadly its not possible. In Galling to Byzantium Yeats Is also faced with an Impossible desire to fulfill. He directly displays his contempt with his advancing age and yearns to conquer his own mortality by escaping the physical world and moving to the idyllic world of Byzantium where he can live forever as art. That is no country for old men shows Yeats preoccupation with aging prevents him from enjoying natural life. HIS disenchantment is directly stated in the line: an aged man is but a paltry thing and then further elaborated in the powerfully striking images of a scarecrow (tattered coat upon a stick) and a dying animal. Yeats discontentment with aging is cleverly expressed In the line: pepper In a gyred showing that Yeats wants to unravel his way through time and remain youthful forever. He wishes to travel to the bliss paradise of Byzantium where he can be gathered into the artifice of eternity. Yeats firmly states I OFF nature I shall never take my bodily form from any natural thing. This, in my opinion, is a perfect example of the tension between the real world in which he lives and the ideal world that he imagines. Similarly to Sailing to Byzantium the poem The Wild Swans at Cooler deals with an avidity to overcome the aging process: Yeats greatest desire. The Swans in this poem symbolism eternity as they give the illusion of never aging. The opening line: The trees are in their autumn be auty parallels the age of the speaker and how he feels that he has been ambushed by the process: The nineteenth autumn has come upon me. The line: and now my hearts sore is very telling as it depicts how Yeats is envious; he doesnt have what the swans appear to have: youthful passion (unwearied still, lover by lover passion or conquest attend upon them still. He aments his past and states how he once trod with a lighter tread; he must finally accept that alls changed. The mood in this poem is reflective and also wishful that he too could live forever, which is expressed in Sailing to Byzantium. September 1913 unlike the other poems is a political poem. Here Yeats contrasts the materialistic merchants of the present to the idyllic heroes of Romantic Ireland. The tone of this poem is disparaging which is expressed in the opening line with the word: you. Yeats immediately attacks the rebels of his time regarding them as reedy merchants who fumble in a greasy till. He then goes on the state that they will take everything they can get their greedy hands on until there is nothing left: add the halfpence to the pence and prayer to shivering prayer until you have dried the marrow from the bone. .u064f7f580c2089486f259696fbe6dc7b , .u064f7f580c2089486f259696fbe6dc7b .postImageUrl , .u064f7f580c2089486f259696fbe6dc7b .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u064f7f580c2089486f259696fbe6dc7b , .u064f7f580c2089486f259696fbe6dc7b:hover , .u064f7f580c2089486f259696fbe6dc7b:visited , .u064f7f580c2089486f259696fbe6dc7b:active { border:0!important; } .u064f7f580c2089486f259696fbe6dc7b .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u064f7f580c2089486f259696fbe6dc7b { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u064f7f580c2089486f259696fbe6dc7b:active , .u064f7f580c2089486f259696fbe6dc7b:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u064f7f580c2089486f259696fbe6dc7b .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u064f7f580c2089486f259696fbe6dc7b .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u064f7f580c2089486f259696fbe6dc7b .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u064f7f580c2089486f259696fbe6dc7b .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u064f7f580c2089486f259696fbe6dc7b:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u064f7f580c2089486f259696fbe6dc7b .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u064f7f580c2089486f259696fbe6dc7b .u064f7f580c2089486f259696fbe6dc7b-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u064f7f580c2089486f259696fbe6dc7b:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: The first World War EssayYeats clearly displays his contempt for these men in the sarcastic and equivocal line: for men were meant to pray and save. The pray in this line can also be interpreted as prey showing Yeats sees these men as nothing but vultures. He regards the men of Romantic Ireland as the antithesis of the men f his time: yet they were of a different kind names that stilled your childish play. The direct contrast is further explored when he states: and what God help us could they save they weighed so lightly what they gave. He goes on to say that felt he was surrounded by essentially clowns: lived where motley is worn. The lack of respect for these leaders is clearly shown as Yeats viewed these men as merely players in the casual comedy of life. Yeats does come to the sudden realization that he was wrong and that alls changed, changed utterly. Yeats becomes very engaged with the notion of the heart. While his can change and review events, theirs are enchanted to a stone. He ends the

Wednesday, December 4, 2019

It is sweet and fitting to die for ones country What are Tennysons and Owens views on this Essay Example

It is sweet and fitting to die for ones country What are Tennysons and Owens views on this? Essay The charge of the light brigade was written in 1854 by Alfred Lord Tennyson, to honour those who died in war, in the battle of Balaclava. The poem was written during the Crimean war and published in the Times, newspaper. Tennysons attitude towards war was based on what he read in the newspapers. He was a poet laureate. Wilfred Owens also wrote a poem called Dulce et decorum est he was born in 1893 and died at a very young age in 1918. He died during the battle; therefore his poem reflects his experiences. Both poems were written in different decades, and therefore are about different wars, and consequently, clearly illustrating the changing attitudes to war these poems are describing. One author saying how war is such a great thing and how brave the soldiers were and how it was a thing they just had to do. In contrast the other author is saying, how terrible war is and also emphasizes the death and injuries. Tennyson describes the glory and heroism of war, rather than the death and stupidity. Starting with the Charge of the Light Brigade Tennyson uses imagery and figurative language creates the tone of exhilaration and the theme of honouring the Light Brigade. Charge of the Light Brigade can be divided down into three different parts, the charge towards the battle, the scene where the battle takes place and lastly, where they retreat and flee from their enemies. We will write a custom essay sample on It is sweet and fitting to die for ones country What are Tennysons and Owens views on this? specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on It is sweet and fitting to die for ones country What are Tennysons and Owens views on this? specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on It is sweet and fitting to die for ones country What are Tennysons and Owens views on this? specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The first stanza starts off with repetition, the effect of using this is to emphasise the point its trying to make, in this case, emphasising the distance they travelled, half a league. This suggests the soldiers rode one and a half miles. It also gives the poem a beat of the hooves of the horses and this continues through the whole poem. The next line in the Valley of Death, the use of the metaphor helps to convey that the valley is where many men were soon to die. The word death is put into capitals to add stress and importance. Tennyson also uses imperatives such as forward the light brigade and charge for the guns showing the soldiers were inferior to Lord Raglan. It also helps to create an image in the readers mind of the scene. When Tennyson writes he said he is referring to Lord Raglan but uses the word he to show that he doesnt have much respect for Lord Raglan. This is because Lord Raglan led the 600 soldiers up the wrong valley, and some of the soldiers needlessly died. All that had said to happened is someone had blundered even the soldiers knew that. Tennyson doesnt refer to any individual soldier alone but refers to them as the six hundred showing the reader that no single individual is important but the collective is. In stanza two, Tennyson uses imperatives again Forward, the light brigade. This also shows movement. Was there a man dismayd? this is a use of a rhetorical question because the reader knows that they were not disappointed, they knew were going to die awaiting battle, they had to be heroic and fearless about it, Theirs not to make reply, theirs not to reason why, theirs but to do and die. This shows the soldiers had NO say in whats happening they just followed the commanders instructions into war. Their aim was to go out to war and die fighting. Also the d sound effect is heavy, making everything seem worse and harder. Tennyson also uses alliteration do and die which is used as another way of emphasis. Battle scene, stanza three, starts off with another set of repetition. Cannon to the right of them, Cannon to the left of them, Cannon in front of them. Repeating this emphasises that they are being attacked in every direction, and that its difficult to escape. Its also again goes back to the point of how the men were brave and noble to go through it. Tennyson uses imagery to describe the determination of these soldiers who were volleyed and thundered, stormed at with shot and shell, but continued to attack. The courageousness of these soldiers is shown by persistency, even though they faced countless dangers. Also Tennyson glorified and made the soldiers seem brave by summing up theirs acts with this quote Boldly they rode and well. This is an oxymoron. Then in the next line, Tennyson writes into the jaws of death, which is a contrast to the previous line as it is very negative. He also uses personification towards the end death and hell saying that they have a mouth and jaws which adds reality and hazard to the scene. Stanza four is the stanza where the soldiers strike the enemy gunners with their sabres bare-getting out their weapons out and charging at the enemy army while the rest of the world looks on in wonder All in the world of wonderd, and also the world is amazed at the heroism of these men who are continuing on. The next line reads plunged in the battery-smoke meaning the soldiers had just rode into the artillery smoke and broke through the enemy line, destroying their opponents Cossacks and Russians. Right at the end of this paragraph the soldiers retreat and rode back but they had lost many men so they were not the six hundred any more. The beginning of stanza five is anaphoric because it refers back to the opening of stanza three; Canons behind, in front and on both sides of them. They are now assaulted with shots and shells again, showing that the journey back is just as unsafe as the journey to the battle. It could also show a sign of claustrophobia. As the brigade rode on back from the mouth of hell, soldiers and horses collapsed; few remained to make the journey back. This also makes the reader feel sympathetic for the soldiers that died and how fearless they were, giving up their last moments of life fighting for their country, representing them. Finally, the last stanza, the shortest stanza in the poem. It is like a remembrance section to give credit to the soldiers who fought for their lives. The stanza is introduced with a rhetorical question, when can their glory fade. The answer to this is that their glory can never fade because we remember them in remembrance Sunday for their hard effort they put in, to make us remember them. Tennyson uses imperatives, honour the charge they made, honour the Light Brigade, telling us to honour and respect their courageous skills and bravery. The ending of the stanza is the phrase, noble the six hundred, is a summary of the whole patriotic poem and it makes us recall the phrase. In conclusion, the poem used a wide variety of personification, imagery, figures of speeches, and other poetic devices to provide to the tone of exhilaration and the theme of honouring the Brigade. Tennyson efficiently used strong figurative language and structure to tie together the reasoning behind the theme and tone of the poem. Owen on the other hand, chooses to describe a very opposite side of war. Unlike Tennyson, Owen has real experience of fighting on the battlefield and because of these bad experiences he believes that it is NOT sweet and fitting to die for your country. Owen capitalizes greatly on metaphors and similes. Right off in the first line, he describes the troops as being like old beggars under sacks. This not only says that they are tired; but that they are so tired they have been brought down to the level of beggars who have not slept for weeks on end. Another simile also used to express the mens wretched condition after fighting in war is, coughing like hags, we cursed through sludge. The use of onomatopoeia highlights the sticky and thick mud that the men forced themselves to travel through. Coughing like hags this shows that theyre being compared to drowsy, ugly women. When Owen writes we, he makes the poem seem much more personal. All these soldiers are completely drained and warn out from a demanding day. And towards our distant rest began to trudge, insinuating that the soldiers are dragging their feet to their much expected moments of relax before they have to go back again. The soldiers are physically and mentally crushed, as it i s conveyed in this effective metaphor, men marched asleep. The contrasting of march and asleep strongly underlines how exhausted they were and yet they had to keep on walking with will power. Most of the men had lost their boots and therefore were limping because their feet were cut and bleeding, but limped on, blood shod, implying they were physically and mentally in pain and they are suffering a great deal to get back to their trenches. Drunk with fatigue; deaf even to the hoots. With this vivid description, you can almost imagine large numbers of people dragging their boots through the mud, tripping over their own shadow. This stanza concentrates on the soldiers discomforts and struggles. They dont notice whats going on in the background, of tired, outstripped five-nines that dropped behind, suggesting that theyre not able to focus their attention to the bombs because the suffering of this journey is enough to think about. The second stanza kicks of with exclamation marks informing us that Gas! Gas! must have leaked somewhere. An ecstasy of fumbling The boys were forced to run out into the mist, unaware of their fate. The vivid images displayed here are deeply affecting and can never be forgotten. It paints a mental image that disturbs our minds. The troops were torn out of their nightmarish walk and surrounded by gas bombs. Then the action focuses on one man who couldnt get his gas helmet on in time when there was a gas attack. Fitting the clumsy helmets just in time. Here, Owen has used personification to add life to the helmet, saying that the helmet a hard one to wear when you need it the most! Stanza two is opposite to stanza one as it is slow paced, and action less however stanza two is full of intense movement. Owen uses the word ecstasy as stated before, which adds wildness and how out of control the soldiers are in this scene. A simile is used to describe the pain a soldier went through, when he didnt put on his gas mask in time but someone still was yelling out . Like a man in fire or lime. This makes this part of the poem more dramatic and adds to the amount of danger that the men are in. as under a green sea, I saw him drowning, The first half of this quotation is a simile as the author has written as before the statement. The second half could be considered a metaphor as the man is not actually drowning, but it could be linked to the simile before it. Its also is personal for the narrator, from his experiences. Words like guttering, choking, and drowning not only show how the man is suffering, but that he is in terrible pain that no human being should tolerate. Also that line above in the context, is a metaphor and works very well because it helps the reader understand the feeling of being trapped by poisonous gas. It also describes what Owen saw with his own eyes, and makes the poem more personal to Owen. Stanza three, the last stanza is pointed at Jessie Pope, a jingoist. If in smothering dreams you too could pace Owen is attempting to get us to go along with his idea. Similes are used to describe the man that has fallen victim to gas attack. The gassed man was flung into the wagon, which reveals the urgency and occupation with fighting. The only thing they can do is toss him into a wagon. The fact one word can add to the meaning so much shows how the diction of this poem adds greatly to its effectiveness. Like a devils sick of sin this shows the unbearable evil that even the devil is sick of what he sees and this adds to Owens idea that it is not sweet and fitting to die for ones country. Then Owen builds up negative images and evokes such emotions so to cause people to become sick. The images can draw such pictures that no other poetic means can, such as Froth corrupt lungs, obscene as cancer, bitter as the cud and incurable sore on innocent tongues. It shows troops being brutally slaughtered very vividly, evoking images in the readers mind. Owen refers to Jessie Pope as My friend adding irony as Owen hates jingoists and Jessie Pope was one. Jessie Pope tried getting as many men into war as possible and put it above them as something every man had to do. This completely contradicts Owens views as we all know his strong views on war and how he doesnt want men to join the war thats why it is ironic. The poem ties it all together in the last few lines. In Latin, the phrase Dulce et decorum est pro partria mori means: It is sweet fitting to die for ones country. Owen calls this a lie by using good diction, vivid comparisons, and graphic images to have the reader feel disgusted at what war is capable of. This poem is extremely effective as an anti-war poem, making war seem absolutely horrid and revolting, just as the author wanted it to. Dulce et Decorum est has 28 lines and its rhyming scheme, A-B-A-B-C-D-C-D E-F-E-F-G-H G-H I-J-I-J-K-L-K-L-M-N-M-N. Rhyming structure is conventional, using full rhymes: sacks-backs, Sludge-trudge, boots-hoots, etc. As we know, the poem contains 28 lines; the same numbers as a ballade except Dulce is irregular. Also Owen tries to use an iambic pentameter as much as possible, meaning each line contains 9, 10 or 11 syllables although some lines have more. The metre becomes most broken up in the description of the moment of The gas attack, in these two lines: GAS! Gas! Quick, boys! An ecstasy of fumbling, As under a green sea, I saw him drowning. These two especially pronounced breaks in the metric structure act to convey the sense of panic and helplessness. In addition, Dulce has a caesura, which is used to emphasise the mens exhaustion. The structure in the Charge of the Light Brigade is very fragmented, his rhymes were mainly repetition of the same word at the end of line or the entire line itself, and his meter was dactylic dimeter. Tennysons rhyme scheme is usually repetition last word in the line such as: Cannons to the right of them, Cannon to the left of them, Cannon in front of them. The rhyme scheme varies with each stanza. Often, Tennyson uses the same rhyme (and occasionally even the same final word) for several consecutive lines: Flashed all their sabres bare / Flashed as they turned in air / Sabring the gunners there. Tennyson loves to use enjambment, especially the last two lines in his stanzas, which is determined by the lines Into the mouth of Hell / Rode the six hundred (23-24) and Into the valley of Death / Rode the six hundred Tennyson clearly tries to use the repetition of the same word in his rhyme scheme and dactylic feet in his meter, the repetition of certain phrases to provide emphasis, and enjambment. Tennyson sees war as a time to represent your country, Owen on the other hand sees war as a waste of life. Death is seen as something positive in The Charge of the Light Brigade whereas in Dulce et Decorum est, there is nothing glorious or heroic about dying with froth corrupted lungs. Tennysons opinion of the soldiers is that they are heroes but this is based from reading an article which reported the incident which is in contrast to Owens personal experience of war, in this sense, Owen seems to have the right to call the soldiers as hags and beggars. The message that Tennyson is trying to send is that the light brigade are to be remembered and honoured for their services and Owens message is that it is NOT sweet and fitting to die for ones country so that ordinary people, the public, who are being brainwashed by people trying to persuade them to join the army dont join because they should know what war truly is like. His poem is targeted to people like Jessie Pope, Jingoists who are trying to persuade people to join the army. Personally, I preferred Dulce because it was written by someone who had personal, first hand experience of war so he knows what hes talking about. However, I do not agree with his message entirely, as sometimes you can do incredibly heroic things whilst fighting for your country, and be remember for countless years on end as a hero. A modern day example is Remembrance Day where we give a minute or so honouring those who gave up their lives for us today. So to some extent, dying for your country is quite honourable because it doesnt matter how you die.

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Legislation Passed To Address Computer Crimes Essays - Misconduct

Legislation Passed To Address Computer Crimes Over the past month you could not pick up a newspaper without finding an article about the recent Denial of Service (DOS) attacks on E-commerce sites over the Internet. This increase in Internet security problems and crimes, is paving the way for tougher legislation in regards to monitoring and tracking computer hackers. We the people should ask ourselves how far we should allow the federal government to go to catch online criminals. Legislation passed to address computer crimes should be carefully written as not to give government agencies powers that would infringe on innocent computer users rights. The need for computer-related laws is undeniably necessary. Computer crimes are estimated to cost businesses billions of dollars each year throughout the United States. An accurate dollar amount cannot be compiled for losses programming companies sustain due to piracy of their software. Potential income is lost when copies of their programs are found easily via the Internet. Pirated software is distributed freely among underground Internet groups via email, File Transfer Protocols (FTP's), newsgroups and various other means. Individuals post copies of software that was either stolen from its company's producers, or that was paid for originally for a one-user license. These copies of software posted in one or more of the above-mentioned ways, allow a single copy to be downloaded by nearly any number of people out of the million that have Internet access today. Hacking does not play a role in software theft until there is a need for the code (better known as programming) of the softwar e to be reverse engineered. Software companies instill certain protections to prevent their software from being freely distributed in the above manner. Hackers remove these protections or reverse what has been written into the software to allow this software to be used by anyone possessing a copy. Piracy is just one of many reasons federal legislation is necessary, but with the advancement of computer technology there has been a rising need for protection of persons using the Internet from crimes involving computers. Hacking groups have used the Internet as a means to inflict damages against businesses, individuals, and even their own or other countries governments. Hackers use their knowledge of security flaws to exploit information or services from companies that use the Internet as a means of business. Hackers have been known to gain passwords, or access backdoors to web pages offering services such as information, product sales, or even online backing, or credit card information. Once they have gotten through security, critical or personal information stored there can be altered, erased, or used to gain cash, dependent upon the situation. Individual's private information stored on hacked web sites, whether it's their own, or businesses storing information about them on these sites, can cause numerous problems or damages to them. These problems can range from a minor inconvenience to them, or extend into serious issues if the information was relating to social security numbers, or bank and cre dit card numbers. Individuals have even had their identities used by criminals to commit illegal acts electronically, or to gain access to their victims credit and bank accounts. Governments, and their agencies are not immune to computer-related crimes; there are thousands of attacks each day on their servers that maintain massive amounts of information about people, and other critically important materials. Many hackers' sole reasons for trying to access these sites are for their own personal satisfaction to know that they could deface, obtain access to them, or basically extort any information they wanted once they are in. It is a well know fact that government computers are protected from the highest security available, and also watched over very closely, making them a very risky target for potential hackers, and computer vandals. Given all these above mentioned computer security threats and crimes, we must then try to develop laws to protect individuals that use computers for th eir means of pleasure, profit, and transfer of information. Legislation covering computer-related crimes is needed to be ever changing with new advances in technologies happening each day. Unfortunately the evolution of laws is a very slow process. It can take the government years to pass a single law offering guidelines that

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Comets essays

Comets essays A Comet looks like a star with a tail. Some comets do not have tails, and look like hazy, round spots of light. But most comets have three parts; a nucleus, a head, and a tail. The bright central nucleus may be nearly as large as the earth, which is about 7,900 miles in diameter. The head, or coma, surrounding the nucleus, may be from 30,000 to 100,000 miles in diameter. The tail, which look like a bright streak behind the comet, may sometimes be 100,000,000 miles long, or farther than the distance from the earth to the sun. The light of a comet is partly reflected sunlight and partly glow, of particles caused by sunlight. It has been to believe that comets are masses of tiny solid particles held together loosely by gravitation. But this theory does not fit all the observed facts. Another theory suggest that comets are formed in cold outer space from the interstellar dust particles consisting of such compounds as methane, ammonia, and water, which probably exist as icy particles in outer space. They believe that 70 to 80 per cent of the mass of a comet form those icy particles. The other 20 or 30 per cent is formed from the interstellar dust into rocky and metallic materials such as found in meteorites. This rocky and metallic materials are found in meteorites. This rocky material is imbedded as dust and chunks in the icy material. As the comet travels in its path, or orbit, it gets near enough to the sun to have the outer layers of the icy material evaporate , due to the heat of solar radiation. Meteors are pieces of stone or metal that fall to earth from space. The escaping gases and meteoritic material stream off into space along the comets orbit. This release of material accounts for the streams of meteors that are observed when the earth crosses the path taken by certain comets. Comets travel around the sun in egg-like paths called ellipses. The time it takes a comet to make a complete orbit is called i...

Thursday, November 21, 2019

An american slave by Frederick Douglass, Narrative of the Life of Essay

An american slave by Frederick Douglass, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass - Essay Example In this book, Douglass narrated the life of a slave in the United States into finer details. This paper will give a description of life a slave in the United States was living, as narrated through the experiences of Fredrick Douglass. Life of a slave in the United States The narrative begins by informing the readers that slaves were kept in the dark about crucial issues in their lives such as their dates of births. The slaves, particularly those born in slavery, were not allowed to know such important aspects of their lives as birthdays. For instance, Douglass was not sure of his exact birth date. They were even kept in the dark on the identity of their parents, â€Å"I do not recollect ever seeing my mother by the light of day† (Douglass, 10). This implies that the slaves were separated from their biological parents at a tender age, and subjected to harsh living conditions. One of the slaves, Fredrick Douglass, was separated from his mother, Harriet Bailey, when he was seven years old. The slaves are not emotionally affected by the separation since they are separated from their parents at a tender age and they become used to living without their parents. Slaves are subjected to harsh conditions of slavery, despite their parents or even relatives being the slaveholders. Slaves start to witness brutal acts of slavery at a very young age. The slave masters did not care whether their children or relatives were undergoing the harsh conditions of slavery. It is believed that Douglass’ father owned the slaves, â€Å"the opinion was whispered that my master was my father; but of the correctness of this opinion I know nothing.... My mother and I were separated when I was but an infant† (p 10). Slave masters use totalitarianism as a means of monitoring their subjects. The slaves are required to behave in a particular manner when they are interacting with their masters. Slaves themselves encounter cruel interaction among their peers and slave holders . Slave masters administer fears among the slaves, since this is what keeps them going. When they speak the truth, they are penalized by their owners. Ignorance is a slavery tool that is widely used by slaveholders to administer acts of slavery. Initially, many individuals were made to believe that slavery was a natural occurrence. People believed that blacks did not have the capability of actively participating in their civil rights, and therefore should be owned by white community. In this narrative, the whites are depicted as individuals who access power and keep blacks from the time they are born till they die. Slaves are ignorant of important aspects in their lives, not because they like it, but are forced to be in this status. The ignorance that is enforced ensures that the slave children are deprived of the individual identity sense. However, as the children tend to grow older, they secretly learn how to read and write as a means of acquiring literacy, resulting into their se lf sufficiency sense. According to the slaveholders, literacy would make the slaves be on the know-how of their rights and in turn question the whites on why they are keeping them. Ignorance is also used by slaveholders as a means of maintaining active control over what the rest of the world knows about acts of slavery. In this regard, if the slaves are not able to write, their brutal experience would not be exposed to the outside world. When slave masters discovered that the slaves were secretly learning how

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Any sub topic of Microeconomics Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Any sub topic of Microeconomics - Term Paper Example Economic Theories: The Chinese government involved itself in following the policy of debt and deficits and so the fiscal policies went unrecognized. Limited foreign and domestic borrowing took place during the period of 1979 to 1993. The year 2007 witnessed a rise in government debt. The financial crisis around the globe prompted China to take expansionary fiscal policies which resulted in fiscal deficits. In the seven year period during 2001 to 2007, the Chinese economy witnessed a rising growth curve, while the fiscal policies withdrew stimulus at the same time. It witnessed closing of the output gap. The way for the prudent fiscal policy was laid by the shift in fiscal policy. The significance of the fiscal policy lies in rebalancing the growth tendency towards domestic demand and service production. The growth possibilities in the short run can get stimulated by the direct spending of the government. Monetary Policy Fixed interest rate regimes act to be the constraints in operati on of the monetary policies. China initially suffered from poor financial system and weak institutions catering the economy. The inefficient functioning of the system led the authorities to revalue the currency compared to the dollar, in 2005. The currency maintained the stability level, and the value was set by the functioning of the market. The economy can find itself prone from macroeconomic shocks if it maintains a low level of inflation. The concerned authorities depended upon the monetary policies to control food prices. The strengthening of the effective exchange rate was witnessed by the appreciation of the currency of the country. Policies on Trade Concerned authorities were created within the country, which took care of the policies on trade and other policies related to anti-dumping and other issues. The restructuring process paved the way for creation of new trade policies under the state agencies. The policies of trade and foreign direct investment coupled to penetrate into the global platform for China. The transparency in the policies was improved by taking appropriate steps. The policies were drawn to be in line with the rules of the World Trade Organization (WTO). The barriers to trade were withdrawn and regulations were reduced so as to enable free flow of goods. The steps laid the foundation stone for China, to set benchmarks on the global arena in terms of contribution to the world’s imports and exports. Chinese economy tried to follow the characteristics of an open economy and so took steps to smoothen the way for trade policies. The constraints on foreign investments were withdrawn and offered fast liberalization to suppliers from foreign countries. The forecasts made by some leading authorities across the world estimates the economy to grow at over 10%, under the anticipation that turbulence in the European region will lack the capability to shed the effects on China. The potential of China as forecasted by reliable agencies takes into account both the ups and downs of the country. According to the forecasts the country is expected to meet the targeted growth rate. The rise in consumer prices and that of inflation will not be a sustaining situation. The market may weaken, but will definitely not collapse. Relation with the book The article shows the pillars of emergence for an economy

Sunday, November 17, 2019

See atachment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

See atachment - Essay Example btaining additional market share of the competitor that totals 9.1 per cent, Albertsons increases the number of stores to 2400 letting each business unit operate on the regular basis without wrapping up their performance. Buying the assets of its main competitor, Albertsons at once becomes one of the biggest employers within the grocery industry. Though a lot of analysts consider the companys action as an essential step for suppressing numerous competitors due to the significance of scale benefits, some specialists remain skeptical regarding positive consequences of such deal on consumers. It is forecasted that company merger will lead to the narrowed product choice in the market and increased prices on the groceries because these are the major consequences of reduced competition. In contrast to this statement, CEO of Albertsons, Robert G. Miller, asserts that due to the changes of consumer behavior and preferences, the company is forced to adjust in order to save its market position (Hsu par. 14). The combination of businesses will considerably reduce production costs and enhance the quality of products due to raised effectiveness of mutual distribution system. Taking into account that lower costs will result in higher profits, there are no grounds for the company to raise prices, which may lead to the loss of loyal and pot ential customers. In addition, it is less likely that the company will increase prices also because of the great number of existed alternatives in the market. In this respect, according to the prognosis of analysts, consumers are not supposed to face any negative consequences of the impending acquisition. It is fair to state that the deal between Albertsons and Safeway will become a great incentive for other companies to follow their example since benefits of the purchase excel its disadvantages. First of all, Albertsons will upgrade its stores providing fresh and new image to the entire company. Every time when the market environment is

Friday, November 15, 2019

Regulatory Behavior Research Review

Regulatory Behavior Research Review People experience pride after an accomplishment, its experience can both encourage and discourage succeeding regulatory behavior. This conflicting influence can be accounted for by considering the information about the event that spawned the pride (i.e., appraisal information) and whether a self-regulatory goal is active. In the absence of a self-regulatory goal, appraisal information can be used to make positive assumptions about ones self-concept that reinforces further self-regulation. In the company of a self-regulatory goal, appraisal information concerning personal agency can be used to make positive inferences about a persons progress toward self-regulation that leads to indulgence. Pride is a positive self-conscious emotion that results from personal achievements. They investigated the matter by assessing how the experience of authentic pride effected regulatory behavior. They state that pride can be used to make inferences about ones self-concept or self-regulatory goal progress. Self-concept presumptions are a default response, whereas goal progress interpretations occur when a self-regulatory goal is active. Importantly, the extent of these inferences should depend on the nature of the appraisal information that led to the pride. Similarly, pride that is a consequence of personal agency should be more likely to achieve a goal progress inference than pride that is a aftereffect of another agency. The article is organized as follows, first provide an overview of appraisal-tendency theory. Next discuss the emotion-as-input perspective and its claim that the influence of emotions on behavior depends on  circumstantial factors. Then, the functionalist perspective of emotions to predict when pride will result in self-concept or goal progress will determine regulatory behavior. the type of inference that results from pride depends on the appraisal information that elicited the pride. And whether a self-regulatory goal is active or inactive. Finally, they look at the broader involvement framework for studying the effects of self-conscious emotions on behavior. Classic appraisal theories group discrete emotions based on differences, such as pleasantness, arousal, certainty, effort, agency, and novelty. The functionalist perspective builds on the appraisal-tendency. functionalist perspective assumes that emotions influence behavior as a function of a persons interaction to their environment. functionalist perspective explains how two different emotions can alter behavior, given the same response, and how two different response blueprint can change behavior, given the same emotion. through an appraisal theory lens of perspective, only appraisal information that changes the emotional experience from one emotion to another influence ensuing behavior. The researchers have come up with two supporting hypotheses (H1a, H1b) H1a H1a states in the absence of a self-regulatory goal, an experience of pride containing high effort (but not low effort) appraisal information will encourage inferences of self-discipline, inform the default response schema, and increase regulatory behavior. (SALERNO, A., LARAN, J., JANISZEWSKI, C. (2015). H1b In the presence of a self-regulatory goal, an experience of pride containing high effort appraisal. information will encourage inferences of goal progress, inform the goal-based response schema and decrease regulatory behavior. (SALERNO, A., LARAN, J., JANISZEWSKI, C. (2015). Consistent with the functionalist perspective, appraisal information will not influence all response schemata in the same way. It should be possible to employ appraisal information so the ramifications of this use are only observed when a certain response schema is available. In recognition to the default response consider appraisal information that arise. Method Participants and Design. A total of 182 undergraduate students (52% female, M age  =20.30) participated in exchange for course credit. Participants were randomly assigned to one of six conditions in a (self-regulatory goal inactive vs. active) and (emotion: no-emotion, low effort pride, high-effort pride) between-subjects design. Procedure Participants were told that there were three studies in the session, unrelated and pooled together for convenience. The first study was intended to determine peoples verbal capabilities, but truthfully it was a lexical decision task that served as the goal manipulation. Participants were told to focus their attention on a fixation point on the computer screen that would be replaced by a letter string. They were told to press nine on the keyboard if the letter string was a word and one if it was not, and to respond as quickly as possible. After five practice trials, seven target trials varied by condition. Participants in the active self-regulatory goal condition were shown words regulate, health, persistence, willpower, strive, control, virtue; participants in the inactive self-regulatory goal condition were shown neutral words as computer, flower, refrigerator, notebook, picture, silk, next. Each participant saw the target words twice, along with five filler words, and 20 non-words. The trial order was random. The Study demonstrates that the influence of pride depends on appraisal information and self-regulatory goal activation. High-effort pride increased (decreased) regulatory behavior when a self-regulatory goal was not (was) active, but low effort pride did not have an influence on the amount of regulatory behavior. These effects occurred even though a pretest confirmed that low- and high-effort pride generated an equivalent level of pride. This shows us that the appraisal information that generated the pride informed inferences about the self-concept or goal progress. One issue I saw within the article was students were given class credit to participate in the study. Although it is not frowned upon. Many students could have knowledge of that they were looking for and manipulating responses and changing data. The adverse could also be said that participants didnt care about correct responses. If they made it through to the end to achieve their credit. In closing I do believe there is a significance to the field of psychology. Pride tends to be a necessary evil for many. We are raised to take pride in all we do, a prideful person can take their pride to far and it starts to border on arrogance. Further study to determine that level of pride or how much pride until it spills over to arrogance? Could it be that mass amounts of pride/ arrogance is just personal preception? (American Psychological Assoc.) References SALERNO, A., LARAN, J., JANISZEWSKI, C. (2015). Pride and Regulatory Behavior: The Influence of Appraisal Information and Self-Regulatory Goals. Journal Of Consumer Research, 42(3), 499-514. doi:10.1093/jcr/ucv037

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Where do Babies Come From? :: Sex Reproduction Essays

Where do Babies Come From? missing works cited Emily Martin argues that medical and scientific publications naturalize gender roles by presenting â€Å"facts† that reflect socially constructed ideas about gender. This misrepresentation is reflected in much of the information intended to educate children about the â€Å"facts† of life. Each of the pieces included in our course reader manifest this distortion to some degree. Because individuals begin to formulate ideas about gender at a very early age, such indoctrination is particularly precarious when presented during a child’s formative years. Feminists argue that Santa Claus, Sleeping Beauty and Snow White are also dangerous fictionalizations but depictions of stereotypical male/female roles presented to young people as serious, straightforward answers to important questions is far more sinister and the implications more dangerous to a society that values and espouses equality. Many of the tired old gender clichà ©s are used in all of the books in order to weave together an answer to one of life’s inevitable questions: â€Å"Where do babies come from?† In attempting to answer this question, even the most well-intentioned parent is bound to instill false ideas about gender if he or she relies on most of the popular literature that attempts to broach this difficult topic. Females and their roles in the sexual process are almost always represented as passive mothers, caretakers, supporters of males—being acted upon—whereas men are the actors, initiators, adventurers, rescuers--in fact, the only ones really doing anything at all. The father goes on to say that â€Å"in bed† (an unnecessary assumption) a â€Å"daddy puts his penis inside† the woman’s vagina, â€Å"the sperm comes out of the daddy’s penis and goes into the mommy’s vagina, and then the sperm meets the egg and a baby starts† (Brooks). This typical description is repeated in another work with the â€Å"man lying so close to the woman that his penis can fit into her vagina† so that â€Å"one of his sperms can get to one of her eggs† (Sheffield, 17). In a more euphemistic description a â€Å"father bird puts his opening against the mother’s and sperm cells enter her and swim to the egg† and later â€Å"a shell forms around the egg† (Zapun). Rather than initiated by the egg, this action is carried out by one of it’s parts or, one could argue, a completely distinct part. Another book, What To Expect When Mommy’s Having A Baby states only that â€Å"the daddy puts his sperm inside the mommy,† giving absolutely no clue as to how this is physically accomplished.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Lesson Plan in Classroom Program Essay

In our modern epoch, the time when the only things that are needed for effective learning are the teachers and students is long gone. At the turn of the millennium, the equation to successful teaching also has the variables of classroom schedule, room assignment and even proper assignment of teachers. Although these factors may seem insignificant, all of those can be the telling elements as to whether the highest possible level of edification is attained. During our first teaching episode in our cooperating school, Tagum City National Comprehensive High School, I quickly took notice about the schedule of our CT. Mam Mercado’s schedule is obviously loaded, with only a few minutes of break or rest in between. Her class schedule as well as room assignment was relatively reasonable (in the Philippines’s educational setting). As she is assigned to teach English which is her major, it can be concluded that her students will acquire adequate learning. All these factors greatly contribute to the effectiveness of teaching as well as learning. Having stated that, I realized that for a lesson or a curriculum will be best implemented and taught if all the necessary components, which in this case are the class program, teacher’s assignment and room assignment, are present and well organized. Proper organization can greatly influence and even pad up the interest and enthusiasm of the students. On the part of the teacher, it eases up the tasks to be done knowing that most of these portions which he/she can’t control are put right in place. With that considered, the educational institution can be confident that the zenith of the teaching-leaning process is achieved. Due to some obvious reasons, we were not able to interview our CT about her Class Program. However, she shared to us how important it is to prepare a class program and implement it adaptably. With that, both the teacher and  the learners will know what to do expect as well as do next. With all that has been learned, I realized that there are many dynamics to be considered before effective edification can be professed. Most importantly, proper preparation and implementation of the class program should be given due concern for it can immensely affect learning.

Friday, November 8, 2019

Whats the real problem (Supremacy Crimes) essays

What's the real problem (Supremacy Crimes) essays Supremacy by definition is supreme power or authority. In Steinems essay she discusses mens authority over women, or the lack there of. She also discusses what she feels contributed to this desire that men have. She discusses her views and supports her statements with actual accounts of this need for supremacy through murders. Steinems argument is that we teach our sons growing up to overpower women, causing them to have a desire and need to feel accepted by over powering others. She feels that the reason for these supremacy crimes is in how we raise our children. That, in this country, we raise our sons and daughters differently. Our sons learn at a young age that they should have power over women, Steinem says. She also states in her essay that our in the media is read as white, middle-class, and heterosexual. Its our sons and our can usually be read as white, middle-class, and heterosexual (Steinem 353). The use of language in an essay like this is extremely important. One aspect that helps her argument is her repetitiveness. Steinem makes her point once in plain words, then she can make her point several other ways in different context. This way, the reader will remember the point she is trying to make and he or she will remember it as he or she continues reading the essay. This is a good way of making the reader understand what her point is. If they dont get what she is saying once, she repeats it so they can understand more of it, or see more sides to her story and come to believe what she is saying. This does help her argument because it gives the impression that she has looked at the topic of discussion from all aspects and considered them all. Another way her language is effective is she admits that there are other ways of looki ...

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Vocabulary and Phrases Useful for Writing Business Letters

Vocabulary and Phrases Useful for Writing Business Letters This sheet focuses on core vocabulary and phrases used when writing business letters or e-mails in English. This business writing reference can be used in English for specific purposes classes as a starting point for students who need to use English on an everyday basis for written business communications. Teachers are often not equipped with the exact English terminology required in very specific trade sectors. For this reason, core vocabulary sheets go a long way in helping teachers provide adequate materials for students with English for specific purposes needs. English for Specific Purposes: Core Vocabulary Lists to act on behalf ofto agree withalways at your serviceas agreedas far as Im concernedas far as the payment is concernedas followsas per invoiceas per to the conditionsas per your requestas requestedas soon as possibleat your convenienceat your earliest convenienceat your expenseawaiting your replyto be able toto be authorized toto be characterized byto be confident into be delighted toto be held responsible forto be in arrears with paymentsto be in difficultyto be interested inon arrival of the goodson behalf ofon condition that - provided thaton deliveryon receipt of the orderon short noticeon written requestorder to be confirmedour best attentionour offer is still openoutside addressto pay the maximum attention to the matterpayable in advanceplease allow usplease send usplease send us your instructionsprices are increasingto reach the destinationto refer toto return a letter to the senderto sell at the bestto send under separate coversender addressshort-termsimilar to sample - up t o sampleto be lateto be overrun with ordersto be prepared to - to be willing to before the date we agreed uponBest regardsbody of the lettercircular letterclaim - letter of complaintto come to a decisionto come to an agreement - to reach an agreementcomplimentary closeto cope with the competitioncorrespond to the sampleto correspond withcovering letterdue to oversightenclosure - attachmentto fix an appointmentfollowing your instructionsfrom order receiptfurther to our letter - following our lettergoods listed belowgreetinghalf-priceto have the pleasure toto stop negotiationsto submit a sampleto suit the quality - to meet the qualityto take into considerationthe aim of this letterthe following itemsthe goods are available in our warehousethe goods are not similar to the samplethe goods are sold outthe goods arrived in good conditionsthe letter remained unansweredthe matter in referencethe meeting was canceledto our mutual benefitto the kind attention ofunder separate coverup to an am ount ofutmost carewe acknowledge receipt ofwe apologize again forwe apologize forwe apologize for the delaywe apologize for the mistakewe are sorry to have to we are sorry to inform youto have the power to herebyin case of needin compliance with - accordinglyin due time - in due coursein good conditionin our favorin partial paymentin reply to your letterin the absence ofto inform in due timeinside addressto let someone know in advanceletter opening - beginning of the letterletterheading - headingto look forward to looking forward to an early replylooking forward to hearing from youto make the goods availableto meet a demandto meet customers requirementsto meet the demandMessrsto notify in advance abouton advanced paymentwe have receivedwe hope well receive the goods soonwe look forward to your kind replywe must apologize forwe remain - our kindest regardswe sent youwe thank you in advancewe wish to inform you thatwe would appreciate it if you could answerwe would appreciate your rep lywith no obligation - without commitmentwith reference to - in reference to with the compliments ofwith the utmost carewith two weeks noticewithin the end of the monthwithin whichwithout delaywithout noticewould you please let us havewould you please let us knowyou orderedyou requestedyou sent usYours faithfully (GB) - Yours truly (GB)

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Social Research Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Social Research - Essay Example Another problem is how to be objective and, at the same time, practical, because the researcher wants to understand society as well as to change it or transform it with the findings of the research. (Myrdal, 1969). 2.- There is an irrational taboo about discussing the influences of tradition, environment, and personality of the researcher. So the aim of the sociology of social sciences should be to destroy that irrational taboo, and the philosophy of social sciences should be aimed at finding logical means for achieving objectivity in social research. The latter is the topic of Myrdal's essay. Sociology and philosophy of social science research are important since they try to avoid systematic biases in research and faulty knowledge. The theoretical knowledge is related to cause and effects issues, and the practical or political knowledge is related to the means and ends issues. (Myrdal, 1969). 3.- The solution of the logical means is to dsicover the valuations that are actually determining the theoretical and the practical research, to find the relevance, significance, and feasibility of them in order to transform them into specific value premises for research, and to determine the approach and define the concepts in terms of value premises that have been explicitly stated. (Myrdal, 1969). 5.- Beliefs are the ideas about how reali... Through comparison it can be detected if the beliefs are true or false. But valuations are very complex since they are shifting and contradictory. It can be argued that behavior happens through selective focusing and it is really opportunistic. Besides that it can be stated that there are higher and lower valuations. Most of the time lower valuations are selfish in the process of rationalization when the individual tries to find good reasons that are not true reasons behind his/her behavior. So Myrdal argues that "All ignorance, like all knowledge, is opportunist." Private or personal opinions and public or political opinions are different most of the time. (Myrdal, 1969). 6.- Social research questionnaires should include quantitative questions in which the respondents could not give their valuations about reality. 7.- In order to measure the valuations of the respondents a different set of questions should be conducted for measuring them indirectly. Myrdal's ideas are very important for the researcher to be taken into account when conducting social research due to the fact that biases and faulty knowledge can be avoided in a systematic way. The issues related to the irrational taboo about the influences of tradition, environment, and personality should also be addressed appropriately by the researcher. A good research should differentiate among the concepts of opinions, beliefs, and valuations. By doing so the researcher can infer facts and policies of real value for the research community. The aim is to come up with valid and reliable data from the social science research that can be useful for understanding and transforming the social

Friday, November 1, 2019

The Rights of Corporations vs. The Rights of Women Essay

The Rights of Corporations vs. The Rights of Women - Essay Example In fact, British allies affirmed that, the personality of the partners was at greater risk depending on how they were treated (Humphreys 125- 130). The rights of corporations as well as the rights of Women despite of them being preserved since the early times, Women rights in comparison to the corporations have been extensively violated. The magnitude of violation was much felt before and during the 19th century. Even though some rights were implemented which empowered women within the business, their still much to be done because they have still not been fully incorporated within the business world. Rights of corporations have been preserved since the early times and are still being amended at the present day. Personhood was integral to the discussion since complete legal â€Å"personhood† had been discussed extensively upon the Limited Liability Corporation in Britain and America about twenty years prior to the discussion. Capitalism had been completely misshaped. As it has been indicated from Lectures IV and VI, the Limited Liability Act of 1855 in Britain had established liability to companies integrated under the Joint Stock Companies. Act of 1844in relation to some capital necessities, had amended the need to obtain a special charter from the Legislative to form a company involving only effortless registration. The structure additionally streamlined under the Joint Stock Company Act of 1856, entailing only seven participants to sign a Memorandum of Association and to include the name or rather abbreviations â€Å"Ltd† at the end of the company’s name. However, the final amendment was resolved in 1897, in Salomon v. Saloman & Co., Ltd., the House of Lords, the then Britain’s Supreme Court. According to this statute, a corporation was analyzed as being as a separate legal entity with its partners (Humphreys 130- 140). Limited liability meant that the shareholders were a different from the corporation and were only liable for the capital invested in the corporation. The company could either sue or be sued in its own name unlike before. The company being a limited liability meant that it could even carry out business activities on its own. This necessitated to raising high capital in order to form big companies that the growing economy needed and also to carry out the operations of the company with administrative competence. Some perceived that it was morally wrong to alleviate partners from undertaking the responsibilities linked to a company. This was also incompatible with the moral principal which held that owning a business under your name was an expression of religious calling. It was not in order to have several members have some share in the business each having a designated responsibility then abruptly they were being relieved from their assignments and become limited to the business (Humphreys 160). Even though there was an intense debate on the issue of limited liability of a company, the decision had been arrived at and it was very essential to the new social order. It was very had to accept the reality, considering that they had been used to Capitalism which entailed mixed consequences as opposed to the Ltd Company. Formation of Limited Liability Company was a great challenge to the British Friends as most of them were separated from their businesses that they had

Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Challenges in reducing the mongoose population Essay - 1

Challenges in reducing the mongoose population - Essay Example For instance, convincing an audience of farmers who are directly affected by the mongoose of the essence of having the mongoose safeguarded may be challenging than convincing other persons who are not direct victims. Similarly, it may be problematic in seeking the full support of authorities and government agencies directly involved in policy making for approval of such a plan of creation of natural conservancy zones for the mongoose instead of allowing them are depleted by being killed by human beings. This is also related with the challenge of communication emanating from disparities along ethnic lines. With such a proposal being based on scientific knowledge, it may become challenging in communicating the information to indigenous tribes especially to the persons who are least learned. Finally, a very fundamental challenge likely to be faced in implementing the proposal is that of inadequacy of existing legal frameworks in the country. There needs to be strategic policies and laws that are formulated to enhance the collaborative efforts of the government and public is such efforts of creating conservancy zones. In conclusion therefore, collaborative efforts between the government agencies as well as the public on such an initiative as establishment of a conservancy zone is dependent on effectiveness in communication, awareness creation and the legal frameworks governing a nation. This therefore explains the likelihood that the above factors may affect the effectiveness of the process of creation of conservancy zones for the mongoose in

Monday, October 28, 2019


Free Will Essay Vilayandur S. Ramachandran came from a distinguished family in Tamil Nadu, India, and was neuroscientist, which is a field of study encompassing the various scientific disciplines dealing with the nervous system. Ramachandrans views on the brain and how it works are discussed in his work â€Å"The New Philosophy†. In his essay he discusses the nature of consciousness, discussing the effects of certain mental states and their influence on the body and the brain. One of his main topics, however, is the Ramachandrans view of free will. He suggest that â€Å"neuroscience intersects with philosophy because the question of free will has been a philosophical problem for hundreds of years and more† (Jacobus 569). He discusses the significance of the brain imaging that shows a â€Å"readiness potential† and what it really means to have a free will. Through his essay, though, it is interesting to point out where religion and Christianity stands on the issue of free will and whether Christians are puppets under Gods command. Ramachandran poses this question about free will: â€Å"Is your brain the real one in charge, making your free will only a post-hoc rationalization; a delusion..?† When a special experiment was underway, it was discovered that when a person was told to move their finger within the next ten minutes at their own free will, their brain would kick in almost a second before the actual willingness to move the finger. This posed the original question stated above and brought on other questions as well. If this person is now shown the screen displaying the signal from the EEG scanner hooked up to your brain, they can then see their free will. They will then have three options: 1) They will experience a sudden lack of will, feeling as though the machine is controlling them, making them feel like a puppet. 2) They will refuse to have their belief of their free will to be altered but instead believe that the machine has some â€Å"paranormal precognition by which it is able to predict your movements accurately† (Ramachandran 559-60). 3) The person will reconfigure the experience in their mind, and cling to their sense of freedom, denying what their eyes have seen as evidence and maintain that â€Å"the sensation of will precedes the machines signal, not vice versa† (Ramachandran 560). The point when the brain would â€Å"kick in† before the movement is called the â€Å"readiness potential†. The â€Å"readiness potential† is what happens when there is a change in the electrical activity of the brain that occurs before the subjects conscious decision to move a muscle ( Ramachandran believes that â€Å"there is an inevitable neural delay before the signal arising in one part of the brain makes its way through the rest of the brain to deliver the messagenatural selection has ensured that the subjective sensation of willing to delay deliberately to coincide not with the onset of the brain commands but with the actual execution of the command by your finger† (Ramachandran 560). Ramachandran is a firm believer in evolution, believing that the events must have some sort of evolutionary purpose. â€Å"On one hand,† he says, â€Å"this experiment shows that free will is false and cannot be causing the brain events because the events kick in a second earlier. But on the other hand, the pause must have some purpose, otherwise why would the delay have evolved† (Ramachandran 560). Though these events have a purpose, evolutionary is not the answer. In Joshua 24:15 it says â€Å"Choose for yourselves this day who you will serve, as for me and my household we will serve the LORD.† God gives mankind a choice to follow Him and so free will is a gift from God as something to be accepted. Humans have the gift of God to reject or take the free gift that He offers. If humans really are descendants of apes, then when did the gift of free will come into the evolutionary chain of todays mankind? John 7:37 says â€Å"Anyone who is thirsty may come to me.† It is an offer. Not a demanding command. Anyone who is thirsty may come to me, shows us that God does not want us to be without his living water and without him, but it is our choice whether we choose to accept Gods free gift of salvation. When studying free will in the Bible and through works of literature like Vilayandur S. Ramachandran, there will always be people on both sides of the argument. Do we have control of our own destinies or are we merely puppets in Gods giant game of the world? My personal beliefs on the subject are as I have stated in this paper: Though God has a control over the destiny of the world and each of our lives, he gives us a chance to make a decision to follow him or to ignore the free gift of his son that he has offered to us. John 3:16 it says: â€Å"For God so loved the world that he gave his only son that whoever believed in him would have eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord.† Works Cited Jacobus, Lee A. A World Of Ideas. 8th ed. Boston: Bedford/St. Martins, 2008. Print. The Free Dictionary. Medical Dictionary. Online source. Bible. New Living Translation.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

The Ambitious Male in Macbeth :: Macbeth essays

The Ambitious Male in Macbeth      Ã‚   The tragedy Macbeth by William Shakespeare brings to center stage an interesting, guilty, ambitious usurper named Macbeth, on whose character this essay will focus.    Charles Lamb in On the Tragedies of Shakespeare explains the impact of Macbeth's initial murder:    The state of sublime emotion into which we are elevated by those images of night and horror which Macbeth is made to utter, that solemn prelude with which he entertains the time till the bell shall strike which is to call him to murder Duncan, - when we no longer read it in a book, when we have given up that vantage-ground of abstraction which reading possesses over seing, and come to see a man in his bodily shape before our eyes actually preparing to commit a muder, if the acting be true and impressive as I have witnessed it in Mr. K's performance of that part, the painful anxiety about the act, the natural longing to prevent it while it yet seems unperpetrated, the too close pressing semblance of reality,give a pain and an uneasiness [. . .]. (134)    In Everybody's Shakespeare: Reflections Chiefly on the Tragedies, Maynard Mack shows how Macbeth complements his wife:    Her fall is instantaneous, even eager, like Eve's in Paradise Lost; his is gradual and reluctant, like Adam's. She needs only her husband's letter about the weyard sisters' prophecy to precipitate her resolve to kill Duncan. Within an instant she is inviting murderous spirits to unsex her, fill her with cruelty, thicken her blood, convert her mother's milk to gall, and darken the world "That my keen knife see not the wound it makes" (1.5.50). Macbeth, in contrast, vacillates. The images of the deed that possess him simultaneously repel him (1.3.130, 1.7.1) When she proposes Duncan's murder, he temporizes: "We will speak further" (1.5.69). (189)    Lily B. Campbell in her volume of criticism, Shakespeare's Tragic Heroes: Slaves of Passion, explores the workings of Macbeth's mind as he plots the destruction of Banquo and son :    If the witches have spoken as truly to Banquo as to him, Macbeth sees that he wears a "fruitless crown" and carries a "barren sceptre" in his hand; he has indeed given peace and immortality to make the race of Banquo kings. And he proceeds to his interview with the murderers, plotting what he dare not do openly, for the fear that comes when we are rivals for a thing and cannot both have it makes it seem to Macbeth: The Ambitious Male in Macbeth :: Macbeth essays The Ambitious Male in Macbeth      Ã‚   The tragedy Macbeth by William Shakespeare brings to center stage an interesting, guilty, ambitious usurper named Macbeth, on whose character this essay will focus.    Charles Lamb in On the Tragedies of Shakespeare explains the impact of Macbeth's initial murder:    The state of sublime emotion into which we are elevated by those images of night and horror which Macbeth is made to utter, that solemn prelude with which he entertains the time till the bell shall strike which is to call him to murder Duncan, - when we no longer read it in a book, when we have given up that vantage-ground of abstraction which reading possesses over seing, and come to see a man in his bodily shape before our eyes actually preparing to commit a muder, if the acting be true and impressive as I have witnessed it in Mr. K's performance of that part, the painful anxiety about the act, the natural longing to prevent it while it yet seems unperpetrated, the too close pressing semblance of reality,give a pain and an uneasiness [. . .]. (134)    In Everybody's Shakespeare: Reflections Chiefly on the Tragedies, Maynard Mack shows how Macbeth complements his wife:    Her fall is instantaneous, even eager, like Eve's in Paradise Lost; his is gradual and reluctant, like Adam's. She needs only her husband's letter about the weyard sisters' prophecy to precipitate her resolve to kill Duncan. Within an instant she is inviting murderous spirits to unsex her, fill her with cruelty, thicken her blood, convert her mother's milk to gall, and darken the world "That my keen knife see not the wound it makes" (1.5.50). Macbeth, in contrast, vacillates. The images of the deed that possess him simultaneously repel him (1.3.130, 1.7.1) When she proposes Duncan's murder, he temporizes: "We will speak further" (1.5.69). (189)    Lily B. Campbell in her volume of criticism, Shakespeare's Tragic Heroes: Slaves of Passion, explores the workings of Macbeth's mind as he plots the destruction of Banquo and son :    If the witches have spoken as truly to Banquo as to him, Macbeth sees that he wears a "fruitless crown" and carries a "barren sceptre" in his hand; he has indeed given peace and immortality to make the race of Banquo kings. And he proceeds to his interview with the murderers, plotting what he dare not do openly, for the fear that comes when we are rivals for a thing and cannot both have it makes it seem to Macbeth:

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Assignment: Operations Decision Essay

Allentown Manufacturing Company is a family owned business that manufactures cardboard boxes. Currently, the company has a manpower rate of 100 workers that work 20 out of a month. The company has been able to last through some of the toughest economic times, but recently the AMC’s fixed cost is â€Å"high enough†, and their total costs are exceeding their total revenue. Assess the current environmental scan factors that are relevant to the decision making process. Determine the factors that will have the greatest impact on plant operations and management’s decision to continue or discontinue operations. Provide a rationale for your determination. Some environmental scan factors that are affecting the decision making process are social, economic and technological circumstances. When it comes to the social factors, the lack of properly trained and skilled laborers are affecting the amount of production being put out on a daily basis. The company needs to develop a better recruitment process and training program to employ the best and most profitable employees. In addition, the language barrier creates a problem for our managers. The majority of our workforce is Hispanic and speaks minimal English; this creates problems when trying to delegate job duties among the employees. The economic factors are that the country as a whole is trying to go green; therefore recycling old cardboard boxes is more environmentally friendly than using new ones. This causes a decrease in the amount of orders coming in, therefore affecting the amount being shipped out. The technological factors are the lack of computer skills by some of the labor force. If the machines that produce the product are not being run properly in order to produce the maximum output rate, then this will cause a decrease in profits. Management should focus the economic and social factors when coming to the decision whether or not to continue operations. If the company focused on what will either hold the company back or push it forward, and then issues will begin to reveal themselves. Evaluate the financial performance of the company using the information provided in the scenario. Consider all the key drivers of performance, such as company profit or loss for both the short term and long term and how each factor influences managerial decisions. Be sure to show the calculations that helped you reach your conclusions. The total revenue is the output multiplied by the number of units produced per month: TR=$32*6,000 TR= $192,000 The monthly wages for the worker are the number of workers multiplied by the daily wage multiplied by the number of days worked in each month: 100*$70*20= $140,000 The total variable cost is daily variable input multiplied by the number of days worked in a month: TVC=$2000*20 TVC= $40,000 Recommend how the company can improve its profitability to deliver more value to its stakeholders. Then, develop a brief plan to implement the recommendations. Allentown Manufacturing Company can improve its profitability in a variety of ways, such as expanding into new markets sectors, or developing new products or services. Some major changes that can take place to improve profitability can be to reduce manpower or scale back on working hours, reducing costs, and increasing productivity and efficiency. I think AMC should work with their top management to create a partnership with another company to begin manufacturing a new product to potentially increase profits. Another plan can be to reduce the manpower either by hours or by personnel. This will allow the company to save money on wages, employment taxes, and employment insurance such as workman’s compensation and unemployment insurance. Increasing productivity is a solid way to increase profitability. If the plant is able to acquire larger orders of boxes, this will in turn cause them manufacture a larger amount of boxes. Management would also have to decide the best way to train the workforce to work in a more efficient manner, decide whether or not it is feasible to purchase additional machines to increase the production and develop a proper training program to develop the workers’ skillset. Assess the circumstances in which the company should discontinue operations and how management should react when confronted with these circumstances. Provide a rationale with your response. The circumstances in which Allentown Manufacturing Company should discontinue their operations, is when their total costs surpass their total revenue. The company will not be able to maintain production or meet their cost demands such as salaries, materials, maintenance, etc. if they are constantly spending more money than they are making. Management should react in a manner that is in the best interest of the company and not themselves. If the manager or managers are not able to develop a solid plan to match or pass the total costs that company is hitting each month, than the most feasible thing to do would be to shut the plant down. By continuing to manufacture the cardboard boxes, they are constantly increasing their costs from the electricity being used, and the workers needing to get their salaries.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Somebody’s Mother Analysis

Somebody’s Mother, by: Mary Dow Brine, is basically about somebody’s mother. The title of this poem implies that you will probably be reading about a mother and what she does. When you think of a mother, you think of a woman maybe in her thirties with kids who are around age five through nine, and possibly not afraid of anything you throw at her. That’s what is expected of a mother right? The first two lines of this poem imply the physical features of the mother. She is bent with the chill of winter’s day, meaning that she is probably frail.Then we find out her feet are aged and slow, telling us again she’s old and frail. We also find out that she’s alone. She is standing near a crossing and waiting to cross, but afraid to do so. No one tries to help her in any sort of way or even looks at her. It’s like she’s invisible. The next ten lines are about some schoolboys who are shoveling snow and also passing her by as well as some c arriages passing in the street causing the woman not to cross. Suddenly, one of the schoolboys comes along and helps her cross the street.The woman is not at all scared by the boy. The boy then goes back to his friends and tells them that if his mother was in need that he hopes they would help her. The last few lines are about the woman praising God about how lovely and kind the boy was to her. This poem has few meanings to it, but they are deep in connotation. When the woman is standing at the cross walk unable to go, and scared that she might get run over if she does, that represents something in our lives. We want to do something, but there are obstacles in our way.For instance, if someone is searching and searching for a job and just doesn’t get one because of things happening in their life, then they are standing at the cross walk unable to cross. Also, the woman in the poem wants to cross the street, but it might be because she is too scared. We all have days where we w ant to do something but we are too scared. Even if it’s killing a spider! But there are more difficult things, like maybe asking someone to marry you but you just can’t find the nerve. Finally, when the boy comes to help the woman across the street, he symbolizes the help we have in our life.We have bad days, but we get through them based on support and guidance. Even if we are having a bad year, our family, friends and colleagues get us through it. That is what this poem is mainly about, the influence that others have on us to give us a little push and a helping hand. The attitude of this poem is sorrowful, joyful, and inspiring. At first, the poem sounds a bit depressing, but when school gets out, you get a little more hopeful. When the boy comes to help the old woman, he is described as â€Å"the gayest laddie of all the group†.When you read that particular line you instantly know this boy is bubbly and full of joy. Then when the boy helps the woman across th e street, you know he is a man of a helpful sort and would do anything to help if someone was in need. This poem starts sad, but then it completely shifts to a joyful and helpful point of view. You read about an old woman at a cross walk unable to cross the street, and how her physical features are very old. But then, some boys come out of school and you start to get interested.Then u see that one of the boys is the bubbliest one of his troop and you want to know how he fits in with the poem. The poem just shifted from helpless and sad, to hopeful and thankful. Then, the boy reaches out to the woman and wants to help her across the street and that implies a helpful shift. Helpless, sad, and thankful, and hopeful are completely different shifts, but the words are all a part of the poem. The main theme of this poem is that if you were the woman standing there alone at the crossing, and people were passing you by, how would you feel?Afraid, worried, or hesitant? These few words describ e what the woman is probably going through when people are passing her and not even sharing a glance with her. She’s invisible, and no one cares about her. Another theme is when you are going through tough times, you could always use a helping hand to get through it. The woman was waiting at the crossing and didn’t have the nerve to cross the street, because she needed guidance to do so. Everyone needs a helping hand every once in awhile.When the boy came and helped the woman, she wasn’t even afraid that a stranger walked up to her and asked her to cross the street! And after that, she went home and praised god for that boy who helped her! This is something that happens in our lives a good number of times. We are scared to do something and someone helps us through it. The prediction in the title was entirely wrong, but that’s what probably popped into some people’s heads! The woman is not at all in her thirties, nor did she have kids that were ages five through nine.The woman in the poem would probably be scared if something was thrown at her, like a hard task. But in the end, mother’s are still mother’s. They have kids who they usually love and would do anything they can to not hurt their children, and that’s what the woman in the poem is like. At the end of the day, Somebody’s Mother, By Mary Dow Brine is about an old woman who can’t find the nerve to cross the street. But when a bubbly boy comes to the rescue, she is neither scared nor worried, and she praises God that the boy is â€Å"somebody’s son with pride and joy†.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Evil in Sula and Oranges Are Not the Only Fruit Essays

Evil in Sula and Oranges Are Not the Only Fruit Essays Evil in Sula and Oranges Are Not the Only Fruit Paper Evil in Sula and Oranges Are Not the Only Fruit Paper Essay Topic: Literature Sula Evil, or at least each communitys perception of it, plays a key role in both Sula and Oranges are Not the Only Fruit. In Sula it is Sula Peace that is the Bottom communitys poster girl for evil; in Oranges it is Jeanette that incurs the wrath of her church. Judgment and methods of punishment differ greatly in the two novels, but the reasons for each womans labelling as evil are not that dissimilar. Jeanettes unnatural passions (105), or lesbianism, are what incite the church to take offense, and it is Sulas rebellious behavior that causes her community to boycott any and all relations with her. In both cases it is the womans unwillingness, or inability, to conform to the social standards that sets her apart and agitates the community. However, the way in which these differences are handled greatly differs between the novels. The magnitude of the cruelty and unforgivingness of the communitys judgment and punishment in Oranges Are Not the Only Fruit exceeds that in Sula by far. The inhabitants of Medallions Bottom punish Sula Peace in an unaggressive manner, whereas Jeanette is outright exorcised. The Bottoms judgment of Sula as evil was widespread (in the community) and final. The first signs that Sula was evil were shown the moment she arrived in town: she stepped off the Cincinnati Flyer into the robin shit and began the long climb up into the Bottom (90). Her arrival on the same day that birds were creating a mess everywhere is blatant foreshadowing of the mess she herself creates in the coming time of her stay in Medallion. Morrison sums up the Bottoms reasons for viewing Sula as the personification of evil: When word got out about Eva being put in Sunnydale, the people in the Bottom shook their heads and said Sula was a roach. Later, when they saw how she took Jude, then ditched him for others, and heard how he bought a bus ticket to Detroit they forgot all about Hannahs easy ways (or their own) and said she was a bitch. Everybody remembered the plague of robins that announced her return, and the tale about her watching Hannah burn was stirred up again. (112) Soon after arriving in Medallion, Sula deems is necessary to place Eva in a nearby nursing home, though Eva is in no need whatsoever of being placed in such an institution-she is lucid and able to take care of herself. The Bottom is outraged at this decision. How can Sula just waltz into town and put Eva up in a nursing home while keeping the house for herself? This move is unprecedented in the community, and does nothing to alleviate the Bottoms view of Sula as evil. Furthermore, Sulas promiscuous relations with men, both black and white, is the central problem the community has with her. It must be kept in mind, though, that Sulas mother, Hannah, was equally loose, if not more so, and the Bottom did not despise her anywhere near as much as they do Sula. Why the dualism? As Marie Nigro writes, Sula uses men much as her mother (now deceased) had done but with a different spirit. Whereas Hannah had been sweet and without guile and had respected the ways of the community, Sula goes to bed with men as often as she can but then carelessly tosses them aside. It was a compliment when Hannah chose to sleep with another womans husband, but an insult when Sula did the same-she sees them as disposable and thus treats them that way. The wives are furious over this. It was the men, though, who said she was guilty of the unforgivable thing-the thing for which there was no understanding, no excuse, no compassion They said that Sula slept with white men (112). This is the crystallizing factor in Sulas evilness. As word of this spreads around, regardless of its accuracy, the townspeople either ignore Sula altogether or dream up complicated plots to torture her. Mixing of races is the ultimate sin. The fact that many of the townspeople are products of mixed relationships and it is not nearly as troublesome when black men sleep with white women does not deter their hatred of Sula in the least. The Bottoms judgment of Sula is also at times overly critical, as when she picks at food and does not exclaim over the excellence of the food. They conclude that she is laughing at their God (115). Community judgment of Sula is complex and dualistic, as the previous examples depict. Further, the Bottom communitys passiveness towards Sulas evilness can be explained by its view that the purpose of evil was to survive it (90). The people of the Bottom fully accept the presence of evil. In fact, as with the response to the sky blackening with pigeons, they reacted to an oppressive oddity, or what they called the evil days, with an acceptance that bordered on welcome (89). Thus, when it is final the Sula is evil and could do no good, the community does not lynch or do anything of the type to her. They did not stone sinners because it was beneath them. So how is Sula really punished for being who she is? The ensuing silence she receives from the town leaves her lonely and deserted among her own people; she is alone. The communitys attitude towards Sula is highlighted after she dies. She is left in her home, in her bed, for several days after she dies. In fact, it is it the police who come and take her away, Nel being the one had calls them because she feels it is the right thing to do. People do, however, attend her funeral, but this is out of politeness and civility as well. Contrary to what the townspeople initially believe, along with Sulas death the punishment of the Bottom began. Hatred for Sula unites the community against her and moves it to care more about its members in retaliation to her ways. The women are better to their husbands and the mothers better to their children, and when Sula dies, all reason for remaining good dies as well. On the other hand, the judgment seen in Oranges Are Not the Only Fruit is more straight forward and concrete. Jeanettes evangelical community in northern England is extremely religious, with set rules and guidelines. Anything against doctrine is evil, including Jeanettes unnatural passion. Unlike Sula, Jeanette does not have her entire church community against her. Elsie, though now deceased, Miss Jewsbury, and some other members believe she is free of blame. Jeanette has been raised in a strictly religious environment, so religious that she suffers in school from other students and teachers criticizing her deep involvement in matters dealing with God. For example, the head of the school, Mrs. Vole, interrogates Jeanette, You seem rather pre-occupied, shall we say, with God. Your sampler, for instance, had a very disturbing motif. Yes, your reading skills are quite unusual (41). Jeanettes stringent religious upbringing makes it all the more ironic, as well as horrifying, to the community and her mother specifically when she displays unnatural passions. Jeanette tries to express her love for Melanie to her mother, I explained how much I wanted to be with Melanie, that I could talk to her, that I needed that kind of friend (102). Of course, Jeanettes mother interprets this as more than just a friendship between her daughter and Melanie, correctly, even though Jeanette at the moment denies it. Consequently, the next time at church, Jeanette and Melanie are called out on the their unnatural passions. Melanie promises to give up the sin and is let off easy, staying with relatives in Halifax afterwards. However, Jeanette does not relent in her assertion that she loves Melanie and will never stop. This causes the pastor to send Jeanette home. She instead goes to Miss Jewsburys and spend the night there and has sex with her, and the next morning she returns to her home only to be locked up in the parlor as part of an exorcism! Tired and starving, Jeanette caves in and says she will repent for her sin. After this she maintain a life free of unnatural passions until she meets Katy, whom she has a love affair with. Discovered, Jeanette will not repent this time and stands firmly planted in her position. In response to this, her church privileges are revoked, as are the rest of the females privileges in the church. Jeanettes sinfulness is blamed on her having too much power; the notion that she is lesbian because thats how she was born is unthinkable. Jeanette leaves the community entirely here, choosing to be herself than conform to the churchs rigid social standards. Jeanettes own mother cast her out. There is doubt of the mothers own lack of sin: right at the bottom of the page was a yellowy picture of a pretty woman holding a cat. Whos that? I pointed out. That? Oh just Eddys sister, I dont know why I put it in there, and she turned the page. Next time we looked, it had gone (36). The role that the woman played in the mothers life is questionable, especially since Jeanettes mother admits that her past was not sin-free and far from chaste. So who is she to judge Jeanette so harshly? The community and mothers judgment is firm and unwaivering. There is no gray area, only black and white: stay with the church and abide by its moral code, or leave. The second time around her unnatural passions are revealed, Jeanette choses to leave rather than be punished for being who she is. Also more straight forward than that in Sula, the punishment in Oranges Are Not the Only Fruit of Jeanette it downright cruel. The first time Jeanette is asked to repent, she eventually does so, but not before being exorcised and starved. Only a child at the time, she is not able to take control of the situation and is a victim of her mothers fervent religiousness and devotion to the church and its doctrine. The second time Jeanette is caught, she is older, thus able to make decisions for herself. When she decides that, rather than repent again and accept her lowered position in the church, shell instead move away from the community, she is ostracized by her mother and other ardent church members. Later when Jeanette works for a funeral parlour and services Elsies funeral, she is insolently spoken to: The pastor motioned to the flock. We wont stay to be mocked any longer. Oh hes a demon your daughter, wailed Mrs White, holding on to the pastors arm. Shes no daughter of mine, snapped back my mother, head high, leading the way out (157). The depth to which Jeanette is outcast from the community is incredible. Sula and Oranges Are Not the Only Fruit have both similarities and differences between each other in the community judgment and punishment previously described. In both novels, the protagonist defies the accepted social norm. Jeanette is lesbian whereas Sula is rebellious and promiscuous, her own woman. In Oranges, judgment is based on religion-on a given doctrine. It is definite and inflexible; gray areas do no exist, life is black or white. Jeanette cannot be a lesbian and member of the church at the same time. In Sula, the opposite is true. Judgment is based on the communitys social standards, and they are far from definite and quite flexible. The perfect example would be the comparison of Hannah and Sulas sexual behavior. They are similar, but how they are received by the community is far from close. The Bottom is able to distinguish between certain qualities like Hannahs care for men and Sulas disposable attitude toward them. This is what makes the gray area possible. As for punishment, the two novels do not differ tremendously in methods, but in severity. Both communities ostracized the person they identified as evil. In Sula, however, Sula Peace remained in the community and was not forced into exile. The cold shoulder and fantasies about torture were the most drastic responses from those around here. The church community of Oranges steps up the intensity of punishment. Exorcism and starvation are used to force Jeanette to repent her lesbianism, and she is later ostracized by the church when she refuses to give up her lifestyle. The ostracization here, however, is magnified. Jeanette must move away from the community and her own mother refuses to acknowledge her status as Jeanettes parent! The extent of the cruelty and unforgivingness of the communitys judgment and punishment in Oranges Are Not the Only Fruit is much greater than that in Sula. While the reasons for labelling each woman may be similar, they do not fit the social criteria for normal, methods of punishment differ in many respects. Both women are cut off from the rest of community, but the Bottom does not physically or mentally harm Sula, nor does it drive her out of town. Jeanettes church does just that to her. The community of Oranges has a more stringent set of rules to adhere to, where following them is not an option but a requirement in order to remain on the good side of the church. Sulas Bottom community is flexible in its judgments and how the social rules are applied to every individual person; exceptions are allowed. Community judgment and punishment of those they see as evil in Sula and Oranges Are Not the Only Fruit are certainly belonging to separate novels.