Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Legislation Passed To Address Computer Crimes Over the past month you could not pick up a newspaper without finding an article about the recent Denial of Service (DOS) attacks on E-commerce sites over the Internet. This increase in Internet security problems and crimes, is paving the way for tougher legislation in regards to monitoring and tracking computer hackers. We the people should ask ourselves how far we should allow the federal government to go to catch online criminals. Legislation passed to address computer crimes should be carefully written as not to give government agencies powers that would infringe on innocent computer users rights. The need for computer-related laws is undeniably necessary. Computer crimes are estimated to cost businesses billions of dollars each year throughout the United States. An accurate dollar amount cannot be compiled for losses programming companies sustain due to piracy of their software. Potential income is lost when copies of their programs are found easily via the Internet. Pirated software is distributed freely among underground Internet groups via email, File Transfer Protocols (FTP's), newsgroups and various other means. Individuals post copies of software that was either stolen from its company's producers, or that was paid for originally for a one-user license. These copies of software posted in one or more of the above-mentioned ways, allow a single copy to be downloaded by nearly any number of people out of the million that have Internet access today. Hacking does not play a role in software theft until there is a need for the code (better known as programming) of the softwar e to be reverse engineered. Software companies instill certain protections to prevent their software from being freely distributed in the above manner. Hackers remove these protections or reverse what has been written into the software to allow this software to be used by anyone possessing a copy. Piracy is just one of many reasons federal legislation is necessary, but with the advancement of computer technology there has been a rising need for protection of persons using the Internet from crimes involving computers. Hacking groups have used the Internet as a means to inflict damages against businesses, individuals, and even their own or other countries governments. Hackers use their knowledge of security flaws to exploit information or services from companies that use the Internet as a means of business. Hackers have been known to gain passwords, or access backdoors to web pages offering services such as information, product sales, or even online backing, or credit card information. Once they have gotten through security, critical or personal information stored there can be altered, erased, or used to gain cash, dependent upon the situation. Individual's private information stored on hacked web sites, whether it's their own, or businesses storing information about them on these sites, can cause numerous problems or damages to them. These problems can range from a minor inconvenience to them, or extend into serious issues if the information was relating to social security numbers, or bank and cre dit card numbers. Individuals have even had their identities used by criminals to commit illegal acts electronically, or to gain access to their victims credit and bank accounts. Governments, and their agencies are not immune to computer-related crimes; there are thousands of attacks each day on their servers that maintain massive amounts of information about people, and other critically important materials. Many hackers' sole reasons for trying to access these sites are for their own personal satisfaction to know that they could deface, obtain access to them, or basically extort any information they wanted once they are in. It is a well know fact that government computers are protected from the highest security available, and also watched over very closely, making them a very risky target for potential hackers, and computer vandals. Given all these above mentioned computer security threats and crimes, we must then try to develop laws to protect individuals that use computers for th eir means of pleasure, profit, and transfer of information. Legislation covering computer-related crimes is needed to be ever changing with new advances in technologies happening each day. Unfortunately the evolution of laws is a very slow process. It can take the government years to pass a single law offering guidelines that
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Comets essays A Comet looks like a star with a tail. Some comets do not have tails, and look like hazy, round spots of light. But most comets have three parts; a nucleus, a head, and a tail. The bright central nucleus may be nearly as large as the earth, which is about 7,900 miles in diameter. The head, or coma, surrounding the nucleus, may be from 30,000 to 100,000 miles in diameter. The tail, which look like a bright streak behind the comet, may sometimes be 100,000,000 miles long, or farther than the distance from the earth to the sun. The light of a comet is partly reflected sunlight and partly glow, of particles caused by sunlight. It has been to believe that comets are masses of tiny solid particles held together loosely by gravitation. But this theory does not fit all the observed facts. Another theory suggest that comets are formed in cold outer space from the interstellar dust particles consisting of such compounds as methane, ammonia, and water, which probably exist as icy particles in outer space. They believe that 70 to 80 per cent of the mass of a comet form those icy particles. The other 20 or 30 per cent is formed from the interstellar dust into rocky and metallic materials such as found in meteorites. This rocky and metallic materials are found in meteorites. This rocky material is imbedded as dust and chunks in the icy material. As the comet travels in its path, or orbit, it gets near enough to the sun to have the outer layers of the icy material evaporate , due to the heat of solar radiation. Meteors are pieces of stone or metal that fall to earth from space. The escaping gases and meteoritic material stream off into space along the comets orbit. This release of material accounts for the streams of meteors that are observed when the earth crosses the path taken by certain comets. Comets travel around the sun in egg-like paths called ellipses. The time it takes a comet to make a complete orbit is called i...
Thursday, November 21, 2019
An american slave by Frederick Douglass, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass - Essay Example In this book, Douglass narrated the life of a slave in the United States into finer details. This paper will give a description of life a slave in the United States was living, as narrated through the experiences of Fredrick Douglass. Life of a slave in the United States The narrative begins by informing the readers that slaves were kept in the dark about crucial issues in their lives such as their dates of births. The slaves, particularly those born in slavery, were not allowed to know such important aspects of their lives as birthdays. For instance, Douglass was not sure of his exact birth date. They were even kept in the dark on the identity of their parents, Ã¢â¬Å"I do not recollect ever seeing my mother by the light of dayÃ¢â¬ (Douglass, 10). This implies that the slaves were separated from their biological parents at a tender age, and subjected to harsh living conditions. One of the slaves, Fredrick Douglass, was separated from his mother, Harriet Bailey, when he was seven years old. The slaves are not emotionally affected by the separation since they are separated from their parents at a tender age and they become used to living without their parents. Slaves are subjected to harsh conditions of slavery, despite their parents or even relatives being the slaveholders. Slaves start to witness brutal acts of slavery at a very young age. The slave masters did not care whether their children or relatives were undergoing the harsh conditions of slavery. It is believed that DouglassÃ¢â¬â¢ father owned the slaves, Ã¢â¬Å"the opinion was whispered that my master was my father; but of the correctness of this opinion I know nothing.... My mother and I were separated when I was but an infantÃ¢â¬ (p 10). Slave masters use totalitarianism as a means of monitoring their subjects. The slaves are required to behave in a particular manner when they are interacting with their masters. Slaves themselves encounter cruel interaction among their peers and slave holders . Slave masters administer fears among the slaves, since this is what keeps them going. When they speak the truth, they are penalized by their owners. Ignorance is a slavery tool that is widely used by slaveholders to administer acts of slavery. Initially, many individuals were made to believe that slavery was a natural occurrence. People believed that blacks did not have the capability of actively participating in their civil rights, and therefore should be owned by white community. In this narrative, the whites are depicted as individuals who access power and keep blacks from the time they are born till they die. Slaves are ignorant of important aspects in their lives, not because they like it, but are forced to be in this status. The ignorance that is enforced ensures that the slave children are deprived of the individual identity sense. However, as the children tend to grow older, they secretly learn how to read and write as a means of acquiring literacy, resulting into their se lf sufficiency sense. According to the slaveholders, literacy would make the slaves be on the know-how of their rights and in turn question the whites on why they are keeping them. Ignorance is also used by slaveholders as a means of maintaining active control over what the rest of the world knows about acts of slavery. In this regard, if the slaves are not able to write, their brutal experience would not be exposed to the outside world. When slave masters discovered that the slaves were secretly learning how
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Any sub topic of Microeconomics - Term Paper Example Economic Theories: The Chinese government involved itself in following the policy of debt and deficits and so the fiscal policies went unrecognized. Limited foreign and domestic borrowing took place during the period of 1979 to 1993. The year 2007 witnessed a rise in government debt. The financial crisis around the globe prompted China to take expansionary fiscal policies which resulted in fiscal deficits. In the seven year period during 2001 to 2007, the Chinese economy witnessed a rising growth curve, while the fiscal policies withdrew stimulus at the same time. It witnessed closing of the output gap. The way for the prudent fiscal policy was laid by the shift in fiscal policy. The significance of the fiscal policy lies in rebalancing the growth tendency towards domestic demand and service production. The growth possibilities in the short run can get stimulated by the direct spending of the government. Monetary Policy Fixed interest rate regimes act to be the constraints in operati on of the monetary policies. China initially suffered from poor financial system and weak institutions catering the economy. The inefficient functioning of the system led the authorities to revalue the currency compared to the dollar, in 2005. The currency maintained the stability level, and the value was set by the functioning of the market. The economy can find itself prone from macroeconomic shocks if it maintains a low level of inflation. The concerned authorities depended upon the monetary policies to control food prices. The strengthening of the effective exchange rate was witnessed by the appreciation of the currency of the country. Policies on Trade Concerned authorities were created within the country, which took care of the policies on trade and other policies related to anti-dumping and other issues. The restructuring process paved the way for creation of new trade policies under the state agencies. The policies of trade and foreign direct investment coupled to penetrate into the global platform for China. The transparency in the policies was improved by taking appropriate steps. The policies were drawn to be in line with the rules of the World Trade Organization (WTO). The barriers to trade were withdrawn and regulations were reduced so as to enable free flow of goods. The steps laid the foundation stone for China, to set benchmarks on the global arena in terms of contribution to the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s imports and exports. Chinese economy tried to follow the characteristics of an open economy and so took steps to smoothen the way for trade policies. The constraints on foreign investments were withdrawn and offered fast liberalization to suppliers from foreign countries. The forecasts made by some leading authorities across the world estimates the economy to grow at over 10%, under the anticipation that turbulence in the European region will lack the capability to shed the effects on China. The potential of China as forecasted by reliable agencies takes into account both the ups and downs of the country. According to the forecasts the country is expected to meet the targeted growth rate. The rise in consumer prices and that of inflation will not be a sustaining situation. The market may weaken, but will definitely not collapse. Relation with the book The article shows the pillars of emergence for an economy
Sunday, November 17, 2019
See atachment - Essay Example btaining additional market share of the competitor that totals 9.1 per cent, Albertsons increases the number of stores to 2400 letting each business unit operate on the regular basis without wrapping up their performance. Buying the assets of its main competitor, Albertsons at once becomes one of the biggest employers within the grocery industry. Though a lot of analysts consider the companys action as an essential step for suppressing numerous competitors due to the significance of scale benefits, some specialists remain skeptical regarding positive consequences of such deal on consumers. It is forecasted that company merger will lead to the narrowed product choice in the market and increased prices on the groceries because these are the major consequences of reduced competition. In contrast to this statement, CEO of Albertsons, Robert G. Miller, asserts that due to the changes of consumer behavior and preferences, the company is forced to adjust in order to save its market position (Hsu par. 14). The combination of businesses will considerably reduce production costs and enhance the quality of products due to raised effectiveness of mutual distribution system. Taking into account that lower costs will result in higher profits, there are no grounds for the company to raise prices, which may lead to the loss of loyal and pot ential customers. In addition, it is less likely that the company will increase prices also because of the great number of existed alternatives in the market. In this respect, according to the prognosis of analysts, consumers are not supposed to face any negative consequences of the impending acquisition. It is fair to state that the deal between Albertsons and Safeway will become a great incentive for other companies to follow their example since benefits of the purchase excel its disadvantages. First of all, Albertsons will upgrade its stores providing fresh and new image to the entire company. Every time when the market environment is
Friday, November 15, 2019
Regulatory Behavior Research Review People experience pride after an accomplishment, its experience can both encourage and discourage succeeding regulatory behavior. This conflicting influence can be accounted for by considering the information about the event that spawned the pride (i.e., appraisal information) and whether a self-regulatory goal is active. In the absence of a self-regulatory goal, appraisal information can be used to make positive assumptions about ones self-concept that reinforces further self-regulation. In the company of a self-regulatory goal, appraisal information concerning personal agency can be used to make positive inferences about a persons progress toward self-regulation that leads to indulgence. Pride is a positive self-conscious emotion that results from personal achievements. They investigated the matter by assessing how the experience of authentic pride effected regulatory behavior. They state that pride can be used to make inferences about ones self-concept or self-regulatory goal progress. Self-concept presumptions are a default response, whereas goal progress interpretations occur when a self-regulatory goal is active. Importantly, the extent of these inferences should depend on the nature of the appraisal information that led to the pride. Similarly, pride that is a consequence of personal agency should be more likely to achieve a goal progress inference than pride that is a aftereffect of another agency. The article is organized as follows, first provide an overview of appraisal-tendency theory. Next discuss the emotion-as-input perspective and its claim that the influence of emotions on behavior depends onÃ circumstantial factors. Then, the functionalist perspective of emotions to predict when pride will result in self-concept or goal progress will determine regulatory behavior. the type of inference that results from pride depends on the appraisal information that elicited the pride. And whether a self-regulatory goal is active or inactive. Finally, they look at the broader involvement framework for studying the effects of self-conscious emotions on behavior. Classic appraisal theories group discrete emotions based on differences, such as pleasantness, arousal, certainty, effort, agency, and novelty. The functionalist perspective builds on the appraisal-tendency. functionalist perspective assumes that emotions influence behavior as a function of a persons interaction to their environment. functionalist perspective explains how two different emotions can alter behavior, given the same response, and how two different response blueprint can change behavior, given the same emotion. through an appraisal theory lens of perspective, only appraisal information that changes the emotional experience from one emotion to another influence ensuing behavior. The researchers have come up with two supporting hypotheses (H1a, H1b) H1a H1a states in the absence of a self-regulatory goal, an experience of pride containing high effort (but not low effort) appraisal information will encourage inferences of self-discipline, inform the default response schema, and increase regulatory behavior. (SALERNO, A., LARAN, J., JANISZEWSKI, C. (2015). H1b In the presence of a self-regulatory goal, an experience of pride containing high effort appraisal. information will encourage inferences of goal progress, inform the goal-based response schema and decrease regulatory behavior. (SALERNO, A., LARAN, J., JANISZEWSKI, C. (2015). Consistent with the functionalist perspective, appraisal information will not influence all response schemata in the same way. It should be possible to employ appraisal information so the ramifications of this use are only observed when a certain response schema is available. In recognition to the default response consider appraisal information that arise. Method Participants and Design. A total of 182 undergraduate students (52% female, M ageÃ =20.30) participated in exchange for course credit. Participants were randomly assigned to one of six conditions in a (self-regulatory goal inactive vs. active) and (emotion: no-emotion, low effort pride, high-effort pride) between-subjects design. Procedure Participants were told that there were three studies in the session, unrelated and pooled together for convenience. The first study was intended to determine peoples verbal capabilities, but truthfully it was a lexical decision task that served as the goal manipulation. Participants were told to focus their attention on a fixation point on the computer screen that would be replaced by a letter string. They were told to press nine on the keyboard if the letter string was a word and one if it was not, and to respond as quickly as possible. After five practice trials, seven target trials varied by condition. Participants in the active self-regulatory goal condition were shown words regulate, health, persistence, willpower, strive, control, virtue; participants in the inactive self-regulatory goal condition were shown neutral words as computer, flower, refrigerator, notebook, picture, silk, next. Each participant saw the target words twice, along with five filler words, and 20 non-words. The trial order was random. The Study demonstrates that the influence of pride depends on appraisal information and self-regulatory goal activation. High-effort pride increased (decreased) regulatory behavior when a self-regulatory goal was not (was) active, but low effort pride did not have an influence on the amount of regulatory behavior. These effects occurred even though a pretest confirmed that low- and high-effort pride generated an equivalent level of pride. This shows us that the appraisal information that generated the pride informed inferences about the self-concept or goal progress. One issue I saw within the article was students were given class credit to participate in the study. Although it is not frowned upon. Many students could have knowledge of that they were looking for and manipulating responses and changing data. The adverse could also be said that participants didnt care about correct responses. If they made it through to the end to achieve their credit. In closing I do believe there is a significance to the field of psychology. Pride tends to be a necessary evil for many. We are raised to take pride in all we do, a prideful person can take their pride to far and it starts to border on arrogance. Further study to determine that level of pride or how much pride until it spills over to arrogance? Could it be that mass amounts of pride/ arrogance is just personal preception? (American Psychological Assoc.) References SALERNO, A., LARAN, J., JANISZEWSKI, C. (2015). Pride and Regulatory Behavior: The Influence of Appraisal Information and Self-Regulatory Goals. Journal Of Consumer Research, 42(3), 499-514. doi:10.1093/jcr/ucv037
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
Where do Babies Come From? missing works cited Emily Martin argues that medical and scientific publications naturalize gender roles by presenting Ã¢â¬Å"factsÃ¢â¬ that reflect socially constructed ideas about gender. This misrepresentation is reflected in much of the information intended to educate children about the Ã¢â¬Å"factsÃ¢â¬ of life. Each of the pieces included in our course reader manifest this distortion to some degree. Because individuals begin to formulate ideas about gender at a very early age, such indoctrination is particularly precarious when presented during a childÃ¢â¬â¢s formative years. Feminists argue that Santa Claus, Sleeping Beauty and Snow White are also dangerous fictionalizations but depictions of stereotypical male/female roles presented to young people as serious, straightforward answers to important questions is far more sinister and the implications more dangerous to a society that values and espouses equality. Many of the tired old gender clichÃ ©s are used in all of the books in order to weave together an answer to one of lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s inevitable questions: Ã¢â¬Å"Where do babies come from?Ã¢â¬ In attempting to answer this question, even the most well-intentioned parent is bound to instill false ideas about gender if he or she relies on most of the popular literature that attempts to broach this difficult topic. Females and their roles in the sexual process are almost always represented as passive mothers, caretakers, supporters of malesÃ¢â¬âbeing acted uponÃ¢â¬âwhereas men are the actors, initiators, adventurers, rescuers--in fact, the only ones really doing anything at all. The father goes on to say that Ã¢â¬Å"in bedÃ¢â¬ (an unnecessary assumption) a Ã¢â¬Å"daddy puts his penis insideÃ¢â¬ the womanÃ¢â¬â¢s vagina, Ã¢â¬Å"the sperm comes out of the daddyÃ¢â¬â¢s penis and goes into the mommyÃ¢â¬â¢s vagina, and then the sperm meets the egg and a baby startsÃ¢â¬ (Brooks). This typical description is repeated in another work with the Ã¢â¬Å"man lying so close to the woman that his penis can fit into her vaginaÃ¢â¬ so that Ã¢â¬Å"one of his sperms can get to one of her eggsÃ¢â¬ (Sheffield, 17). In a more euphemistic description a Ã¢â¬Å"father bird puts his opening against the motherÃ¢â¬â¢s and sperm cells enter her and swim to the eggÃ¢â¬ and later Ã¢â¬Å"a shell forms around the eggÃ¢â¬ (Zapun). Rather than initiated by the egg, this action is carried out by one of itÃ¢â¬â¢s parts or, one could argue, a completely distinct part. Another book, What To Expect When MommyÃ¢â¬â¢s Having A Baby states only that Ã¢â¬Å"the daddy puts his sperm inside the mommy,Ã¢â¬ giving absolutely no clue as to how this is physically accomplished.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
In our modern epoch, the time when the only things that are needed for effective learning are the teachers and students is long gone. At the turn of the millennium, the equation to successful teaching also has the variables of classroom schedule, room assignment and even proper assignment of teachers. Although these factors may seem insignificant, all of those can be the telling elements as to whether the highest possible level of edification is attained. During our first teaching episode in our cooperating school, Tagum City National Comprehensive High School, I quickly took notice about the schedule of our CT. Mam MercadoÃ¢â¬â¢s schedule is obviously loaded, with only a few minutes of break or rest in between. Her class schedule as well as room assignment was relatively reasonable (in the PhilippinesÃ¢â¬â¢s educational setting). As she is assigned to teach English which is her major, it can be concluded that her students will acquire adequate learning. All these factors greatly contribute to the effectiveness of teaching as well as learning. Having stated that, I realized that for a lesson or a curriculum will be best implemented and taught if all the necessary components, which in this case are the class program, teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s assignment and room assignment, are present and well organized. Proper organization can greatly influence and even pad up the interest and enthusiasm of the students. On the part of the teacher, it eases up the tasks to be done knowing that most of these portions which he/she canÃ¢â¬â¢t control are put right in place. With that considered, the educational institution can be confident that the zenith of the teaching-leaning process is achieved. Due to some obvious reasons, we were not able to interview our CT about her Class Program. However, she shared to us how important it is to prepare a class program and implement it adaptably. With that, both the teacher andÃ the learners will know what to do expect as well as do next. With all that has been learned, I realized that there are many dynamics to be considered before effective edification can be professed. Most importantly, proper preparation and implementation of the class program should be given due concern for it can immensely affect learning.
Friday, November 8, 2019
What's the real problem (Supremacy Crimes) essays Supremacy by definition is supreme power or authority. In Steinems essay she discusses mens authority over women, or the lack there of. She also discusses what she feels contributed to this desire that men have. She discusses her views and supports her statements with actual accounts of this need for supremacy through murders. Steinems argument is that we teach our sons growing up to overpower women, causing them to have a desire and need to feel accepted by over powering others. She feels that the reason for these supremacy crimes is in how we raise our children. That, in this country, we raise our sons and daughters differently. Our sons learn at a young age that they should have power over women, Steinem says. She also states in her essay that our in the media is read as white, middle-class, and heterosexual. Its our sons and our can usually be read as white, middle-class, and heterosexual (Steinem 353). The use of language in an essay like this is extremely important. One aspect that helps her argument is her repetitiveness. Steinem makes her point once in plain words, then she can make her point several other ways in different context. This way, the reader will remember the point she is trying to make and he or she will remember it as he or she continues reading the essay. This is a good way of making the reader understand what her point is. If they dont get what she is saying once, she repeats it so they can understand more of it, or see more sides to her story and come to believe what she is saying. This does help her argument because it gives the impression that she has looked at the topic of discussion from all aspects and considered them all. Another way her language is effective is she admits that there are other ways of looki ...
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Vocabulary and Phrases Useful for Writing Business Letters This sheet focuses on core vocabulary and phrases used when writing business letters or e-mails in English. This business writing reference can be used in English for specific purposes classes as a starting point for students who need to use English on an everyday basis for written business communications. Teachers are often not equipped with the exact English terminology required in very specific trade sectors. For this reason, core vocabulary sheets go a long way in helping teachers provide adequate materials for students with English for specific purposes needs. English for Specific Purposes: Core Vocabulary Lists to act on behalf ofto agree withalways at your serviceas agreedas far as Im concernedas far as the payment is concernedas followsas per invoiceas per to the conditionsas per your requestas requestedas soon as possibleat your convenienceat your earliest convenienceat your expenseawaiting your replyto be able toto be authorized toto be characterized byto be confident into be delighted toto be held responsible forto be in arrears with paymentsto be in difficultyto be interested inon arrival of the goodson behalf ofon condition that - provided thaton deliveryon receipt of the orderon short noticeon written requestorder to be confirmedour best attentionour offer is still openoutside addressto pay the maximum attention to the matterpayable in advanceplease allow usplease send usplease send us your instructionsprices are increasingto reach the destinationto refer toto return a letter to the senderto sell at the bestto send under separate coversender addressshort-termsimilar to sample - up t o sampleto be lateto be overrun with ordersto be prepared to - to be willing to before the date we agreed uponBest regardsbody of the lettercircular letterclaim - letter of complaintto come to a decisionto come to an agreement - to reach an agreementcomplimentary closeto cope with the competitioncorrespond to the sampleto correspond withcovering letterdue to oversightenclosure - attachmentto fix an appointmentfollowing your instructionsfrom order receiptfurther to our letter - following our lettergoods listed belowgreetinghalf-priceto have the pleasure toto stop negotiationsto submit a sampleto suit the quality - to meet the qualityto take into considerationthe aim of this letterthe following itemsthe goods are available in our warehousethe goods are not similar to the samplethe goods are sold outthe goods arrived in good conditionsthe letter remained unansweredthe matter in referencethe meeting was canceledto our mutual benefitto the kind attention ofunder separate coverup to an am ount ofutmost carewe acknowledge receipt ofwe apologize again forwe apologize forwe apologize for the delaywe apologize for the mistakewe are sorry to have to we are sorry to inform youto have the power to herebyin case of needin compliance with - accordinglyin due time - in due coursein good conditionin our favorin partial paymentin reply to your letterin the absence ofto inform in due timeinside addressto let someone know in advanceletter opening - beginning of the letterletterheading - headingto look forward to looking forward to an early replylooking forward to hearing from youto make the goods availableto meet a demandto meet customers requirementsto meet the demandMessrsto notify in advance abouton advanced paymentwe have receivedwe hope well receive the goods soonwe look forward to your kind replywe must apologize forwe remain - our kindest regardswe sent youwe thank you in advancewe wish to inform you thatwe would appreciate it if you could answerwe would appreciate your rep lywith no obligation - without commitmentwith reference to - in reference to with the compliments ofwith the utmost carewith two weeks noticewithin the end of the monthwithin whichwithout delaywithout noticewould you please let us havewould you please let us knowyou orderedyou requestedyou sent usYours faithfully (GB) - Yours truly (GB)
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Social Research - Essay Example Another problem is how to be objective and, at the same time, practical, because the researcher wants to understand society as well as to change it or transform it with the findings of the research. (Myrdal, 1969). 2.- There is an irrational taboo about discussing the influences of tradition, environment, and personality of the researcher. So the aim of the sociology of social sciences should be to destroy that irrational taboo, and the philosophy of social sciences should be aimed at finding logical means for achieving objectivity in social research. The latter is the topic of Myrdal's essay. Sociology and philosophy of social science research are important since they try to avoid systematic biases in research and faulty knowledge. The theoretical knowledge is related to cause and effects issues, and the practical or political knowledge is related to the means and ends issues. (Myrdal, 1969). 3.- The solution of the logical means is to dsicover the valuations that are actually determining the theoretical and the practical research, to find the relevance, significance, and feasibility of them in order to transform them into specific value premises for research, and to determine the approach and define the concepts in terms of value premises that have been explicitly stated. (Myrdal, 1969). 5.- Beliefs are the ideas about how reali... Through comparison it can be detected if the beliefs are true or false. But valuations are very complex since they are shifting and contradictory. It can be argued that behavior happens through selective focusing and it is really opportunistic. Besides that it can be stated that there are higher and lower valuations. Most of the time lower valuations are selfish in the process of rationalization when the individual tries to find good reasons that are not true reasons behind his/her behavior. So Myrdal argues that "All ignorance, like all knowledge, is opportunist." Private or personal opinions and public or political opinions are different most of the time. (Myrdal, 1969). 6.- Social research questionnaires should include quantitative questions in which the respondents could not give their valuations about reality. 7.- In order to measure the valuations of the respondents a different set of questions should be conducted for measuring them indirectly. Myrdal's ideas are very important for the researcher to be taken into account when conducting social research due to the fact that biases and faulty knowledge can be avoided in a systematic way. The issues related to the irrational taboo about the influences of tradition, environment, and personality should also be addressed appropriately by the researcher. A good research should differentiate among the concepts of opinions, beliefs, and valuations. By doing so the researcher can infer facts and policies of real value for the research community. The aim is to come up with valid and reliable data from the social science research that can be useful for understanding and transforming the social
Friday, November 1, 2019
The Rights of Corporations vs. The Rights of Women - Essay Example In fact, British allies affirmed that, the personality of the partners was at greater risk depending on how they were treated (Humphreys 125- 130). The rights of corporations as well as the rights of Women despite of them being preserved since the early times, Women rights in comparison to the corporations have been extensively violated. The magnitude of violation was much felt before and during the 19th century. Even though some rights were implemented which empowered women within the business, their still much to be done because they have still not been fully incorporated within the business world. Rights of corporations have been preserved since the early times and are still being amended at the present day. Personhood was integral to the discussion since complete legal Ã¢â¬Å"personhoodÃ¢â¬ had been discussed extensively upon the Limited Liability Corporation in Britain and America about twenty years prior to the discussion. Capitalism had been completely misshaped. As it has been indicated from Lectures IV and VI, the Limited Liability Act of 1855 in Britain had established liability to companies integrated under the Joint Stock Companies. Act of 1844in relation to some capital necessities, had amended the need to obtain a special charter from the Legislative to form a company involving only effortless registration. The structure additionally streamlined under the Joint Stock Company Act of 1856, entailing only seven participants to sign a Memorandum of Association and to include the name or rather abbreviations Ã¢â¬Å"LtdÃ¢â¬ at the end of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s name. However, the final amendment was resolved in 1897, in Salomon v. Saloman & Co., Ltd., the House of Lords, the then BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s Supreme Court. According to this statute, a corporation was analyzed as being as a separate legal entity with its partners (Humphreys 130- 140). Limited liability meant that the shareholders were a different from the corporation and were only liable for the capital invested in the corporation. The company could either sue or be sued in its own name unlike before. The company being a limited liability meant that it could even carry out business activities on its own. This necessitated to raising high capital in order to form big companies that the growing economy needed and also to carry out the operations of the company with administrative competence. Some perceived that it was morally wrong to alleviate partners from undertaking the responsibilities linked to a company. This was also incompatible with the moral principal which held that owning a business under your name was an expression of religious calling. It was not in order to have several members have some share in the business each having a designated responsibility then abruptly they were being relieved from their assignments and become limited to the business (Humphreys 160). Even though there was an intense debate on the issue of limited liability of a company, the decision had been arrived at and it was very essential to the new social order. It was very had to accept the reality, considering that they had been used to Capitalism which entailed mixed consequences as opposed to the Ltd Company. Formation of Limited Liability Company was a great challenge to the British Friends as most of them were separated from their businesses that they had