Monday, September 30, 2019
Stephen CraneÃ¢â¬â¢s short story Ã¢â¬Å"The Bride Comes to Yellow SkyÃ¢â¬ is considered by many to be a masterpiece. One writer even called it Ã¢â¬Å"the greatest story ever written.Ã¢â¬ One of the reasons the story is so good is that Crane uses humor to make some serious points about people in general and the Old West in particular. In the first part of the story, Crane portrays Jack Potter and his new wife as humorous characters. Not only are they awkward with each other, but they are also completely out of place in the fancy railroad car that is taking them to the Yellow Sky. Crane makes us see them through the eyes of the condescending porter and the other passengers, who keep giving the couple Ã¢â¬Å"stares or derisive enjoymentÃ¢â¬ . JackÃ¢â¬â¢s fear about how the people of Yellow Sky will react to his marriage is also amusing because we would expect a town marshal to be brave, not afraid of the people he is paid to protect. Part II presents another comical situation- a lone drunk is able to scare a whole town just because Jack Potter is away. This situation is especially funny because of an ironic contrast that the reader already knows about. The man the townspeople are depending on to protect them is the same man we have just learned is afraid to tell them he is married. Part II also includes the comical character of the unsuspecting traveling salesman, whose increasingly agitated questions about Scratchy Wilson set the state for the confrontation the reader knows will occur. Crane is in effect setting us up for the Ã¢â¬Å"punch lineÃ¢â¬ of his story. First we hear about the raging, fearsome drunk who is terrorizing the town- and then we see him. In Part III we get a close look at this Scratchy Wilson, whom we are supposedly prepared for. At first glance, he does behave like a typical Wild West villain. However, we soon learn details about him that make him seem ridiculous. For one thing, he wears a shirt made by women in New York City and boots favored by little boys in New England, hardly the outfit we would expect an authentic Western villain to wear. In fact, these details are the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s first hint of what will develop as CraneÃ¢â¬â¢s major theme: that the West is no longer a terribly wild place. The lengths Scratchy goes to in order to frighten a dog also show him to be a bit ludicrous as a bad guy.Ã Scratchy may roar and bellow Ã¢â¬Å"terrible invitationsÃ¢â¬ to fight, but Crane lets us know exactly how terrifying he really is: Ã¢â¬Å"The calm adobe preserved their demeanor at the passing of this small thing in the middle of the street.Ã¢â¬ In Part IV, Crane finally brings his two major characters together for a showdown that is comical because it disappoints our expectations. Facing Scratchy down without a gun, Potter proves to be just as brace as we have been led to believe, but as a villain, Scratchy turns out to be pretty easily subdued. Presented with the news of PotterÃ¢â¬â¢s marriage, he loses all his menace and sadly walks away. Ironically, he is defeated not by brute force or sheer courage but instead by Ã¢â¬Å"a foreign conditionÃ¢â¬ that he does not understand. His world is suddenly turned upside down by PotterÃ¢â¬â¢s news. Ferocious, gun-toting drunks and the courageous town marshals who fight them are not supposed to have wives. Once the bride comes to Yellow Sky, the rules of the game are so different that Scratchy no longer knows how to play. According to one critic, Donald B. Gibson, the point of CraneÃ¢â¬â¢s story is that by the late 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s, the Wild West was dead, even though some people living there did not realize it. While Jack Potter has taken a big step toward adjusting to the changed world he lives in, Scratchy is simply befuddled by it. GibsonÃ¢â¬â¢s interpretation makes sense and it gets at the heart of the humor in CraneÃ¢â¬â¢s story. However, one cannot help but suspect that Crane is doing more than simply mocking the conventions of the Western. That would make his story a funny parody, but certainly not a masterpiece. Crane is also showing us what happens to a society in transition, a culture whose values are in a state of flux. A Ã¢â¬Å"simple child of the earlier plainsÃ¢â¬ , Scratchy Wilson is an anachronism, a man who finds himself out of place historically. Luckily, he has the good grade and good sense to realize his predicament and walk away from what he cannot understand. But who knows- perhaps some day heÃ¢â¬â¢ll find himself a bride and bring her back to Yellow Sky.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Oedipus Rex has always been one of the most intriguing and interesting plays that William Shakespeare has ever written. By combining a tragic with complex plots, the legendary playwright was able to establish himself as a classic poet known for psychological tragedies. A modern version of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s plays always produces an equally intriguing curiosity from contemporary audiences. Setting and Milieu If given a chance to produce a remake of this play, I would prefer transforming this play to a modern one. This method would provide the audiences a much convenient way of absorbing the message of the story. By means of using the present and commonly used language, audiences can easily relate with the events pertaining to the story of Oedipus. The lyrical and archaic lines would have to be dropped to achieve modernity and represent a younger generation. It would be set in present New York where the busiest streets and cities can be found. Characterization Since this is a modern remake of the original Oedipus Rex, King Laius and Queen Jocasta would be an overly superstitious couple who reigns in the city of New York as the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s richest business tycoons. It is still the same plot, though. Fortune-tellers warned of a son who would later murder his father and marry his mother. A high school teacher who saw him abandoned in the woods near the school would raise Oedipus. He would grow up as an educated man who fights for what he believes is right. All of the original characters would be transformed into other characters which can represent the present time and eliminate the Shakespearean era of the story. It would be entirely based on modern events. Props and Prosthetics Clearly, the characters would be using casual clothing which is common to what they represent. The character of Oedipus is most likely to wear plain and casual clothes while Laius and Jocasta are more fitting to wear highly corporate attires. Masks are definitely out of the picture and the facial expressions and gestures would solely rely on the actorsÃ¢â¬â¢ skills in acting. Stage props include various equipment and tools which are necessary to the backdrop of each scene. It would include materials which can produce a picture of living room, streets, bedroom, and other equipment necessary. Conclusion Modern versions are not always as successful as the original. However, creating a contemporary remake of something very classic is always convenient for audiences who seek to understand more about a specific classic. Language and differences in poetry interpretation are always a major hindrance in achieving the primary message of a certain literature; but if a person wants to understand the deeper meaning of that classic, it is always productive to turn into modern remakes. They give easy-to-understand insights which are simplified versions of the originals.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Movies have long been known to create a portal through which its viewers can transcend through their own realities and experience the unimaginable. The visual, sounds, and narrative of great movies immediately attract the focus of its audience as they move into a trance for those 1-2 hours of screen time. While many great movies introduce their audiences to varying experiences that heighten their senses and grasp their focus, some measure of relatability is necessary to connect with audiences. Such concepts of implementing elements of realism into the various facets of a film help establish a relevant connection, through which audiences can relate. However during the Hollywood Classical era, introducing such techniques of intensifying realism in movies was often unconventional and not an achievable goal for directors and cinematographers. The techniques required to implement such elements were either not well known or plausible. There were some movies during this era that did defy such tendencies and broke barriers in terms of delivering a movie that differentiated through such concepts like realism. Two famous films that have utilized certain techniques in creating an intensified form of realism in their own ways are Citizen Kane, by Orson Welles, and Double Indemnity, by Billy Wilder. The story of Citizen Kane and its main character Charles Foster Kane is actually loosely based of the real-life media mogul William Randolph Hearst, and Chicago tycoons Samuel Insull and Harold McCormick. Considering that the movie is based loosely off the lives of famous individuals already brings in a strong sense of realism within the film that audiences can understand. Yet just because Charles Foster Kane is somewhat based on these figures does not immediately equate it to an intensified form of realism. In fact, what really separates Citizen Kane from many other films, in aspects of compounding realism, are its use of unconventional cinematographic techniques. In an article from American Cinematographer in February 1941, Gregg Toland, the cinematographer for Citizen Kane, emphasizes that the movieÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"keynote is realism.Ã¢â¬ Two important techniques that were used by Toland and Welles in making the movie into more of a reality were the mis-en-scene and visual flow of the picture. The mis-en-scene and sets developed for Citizen Kane were crucial in establishing certain aspects of reality with the audience. One important feature that Toland and Welles made sure of during their shootings was that scenes in rooms actually had ceilings. As silly as it may sound now, conventionally shots taken inside a room on set rarely used to have ceilings. Even if they did have ceilings, viewers could only see them during Extreme long shots. In the case of Citizen Kane however, Toland and Welles realized that in reality, the audience would consciously realize anytime they are in a room that a ceiling exists. Thus it would make sense to bring such practicality into the scenes of the movie. In fact, this technique is employed multiple times through out the movie like when Kane, Leland, and Bernstein are in the office of the Inquirer and Kane comes up with the Declaration of Principles. During this sequence, the ceiling is within the frame of the lens for almost all the shots. Another sequence in which the ceiling is clearly visible is right after Kane loses the election and has a quasi-argument with Leland about his ideologies. In this sequence the camera is placed at such a low angle that almost every shot is a long shot where the audience can clearly see the whole figures of the characters and the ceiling. Such a technique of ensuring not only the construction of a ceiling on set, but also its presence on shots through out the movie intensifies the notion of realism. The audience is not just watching characters on a set in some studio, but they are actually seeing characters in a normal room. Another great thing about the mis-en-scene and set production of Citizen Kane is that it actually helped in delivering smooth visual flows, thus promoting notions of realism. WellesÃ¢â¬â¢ concept for the film was to make it as real as possible and executing that concept through the details of shooting the film. Welles and Toland came upon the agreement of avoiding straight cuts as much as possible as it was unnatural. Instead they focused more on developing a depth of field and pan/track shots. For instance, during the beginning of the movie, there is a scene during which KaneÃ¢â¬â¢s mother and father agree to sign over their son to Thatcher to be educated. During this sequence the shot starts with Kane playing outside in the snow. The camera then tracks out through the window of the house and all the way back into the dining room where KaneÃ¢â¬â¢s mother signs the papers provided by Thatcher. Through out this single shot, the depth of field ranges from young Kane playing outside all the way into the dining room. Conventionally, such a shot would have probably been broken up but Welles and Toland insisted on delivering long shots through the film to preserve its form of realism. Contrasting to Citizen Kane, the crime/thriller film Double Indemnity brings upon different technical aspects that intensify its notion of realism. As a film noir and crime thriller, Double Indemnity focuses on the fatal romance between a smart insurance salesman, Walter Neff, and a greedy housewife, Phyllis Dietrichson. Double Indemnity is glorified as one of the classic film noirs with its peculiar style such as an affinity for the night and rain, romantic narration, and presence of a femme fatale. However in addition to depicting a classic film noir, Double Indemnity utilizes certain effects to heighten its sense of realism and produce a stronger connection with its audience. One unique feature within this film is its predominant use of on-screen narration, depicting what the protagonist Walter thinks. A lot of times during the film, the on-screen narration will appear during moments of high tension or scenes exhibiting the restricted narrative. It also comes on when Walter starts to think to himself why he is committing to the idea and execution of murder and how he does not care if it is wrong because he is infatuated with Phyllis. For instance, in the beginning of the film, after Walter leaves PhyllisÃ¢â¬â¢ home, realizing she may want to purchase accident insurance for the Ã¢â¬Å"wrong reasons,Ã¢â¬ the on-screen narration comes on depicting his thoughts at his apartment. The audience hears WalterÃ¢â¬â¢s thoughts and how he feels completely out of it and cannot stop thinking about Phyllis. Such thoughts of infatuation and confusion are feelings the audience can relate to and put into perspective in their own lives, which intensifies the realism effect. Another technique utilized in Double Indemnity is the lighting effect on-screen. Coinciding with the style of a film noir is the use of low-key lighting in significant portions of the film. Many shots through out the movie, such as in PhyllisÃ¢â¬â¢ home, WalterÃ¢â¬â¢s apartment, and the car ride to the train station when PhyllisÃ¢â¬â¢ husband is murdered all use low-key lighting. The usage of the effect itself does not immediately signify a sense of realism but the fact that the lighting technique is used during moments of tension and suspense adheres to the mood and emotions of the movie. This combination is essentially what is picked up by viewers and again builds upon the idea of creating a relatable connection through which viewers can watch the film. Another combination that is prominent in the film is the crafted amalgamation of the non-diegetic soundtrack and the tension built up in certain scenes. A perfect example is during the car ride to the station when Walter murders PhyllisÃ¢â¬â¢ husband, the music slowly builds up in speed and volume as the scene gets closer to the time of the murder. During the action of the murder, the music is blaring with eerie music. Another interesting point is that instead of focusing on the murder, the shot is focused on PhyllisÃ¢â¬â¢ face and her glaring eyes lit by the low-key lighting. This combination of the various elements of lighting, sound, and camerawork culminate together to create a very real and thrilling scene. In might even seem contradictory to say these Ã¢â¬Å"addedÃ¢â¬ elements intensify the form of realis m evident in the film, but as mentioned earlier, to deliver realism, a connection needs to be established with the audience. The connection created in Double Indemnity is based on tone and the mood set through the elements mentioned above. The notion of incorporating a form of realism within a film is beyond creating a narrative that would seem feasible in the real world. Actors and Actresses can also do their best in mimicking the habits of society in their performances but at the end, a movie will be just a movie in the eyes of the audience. However through the usage of distinct cinematic elements, a relatable connection can be created between the film and the audience. Such a connection allows for the concept of realism to be achieved considering the concept itself falls in the perception of the viewers. From the analysis provided above, both films Citizen Kane and Double Indemnity employ special techniques that aim to intensify the form of realism evident in their narratives. In doing so, each film delivers, in their own unique way, a screenplay that objectifies a truth held in the general values of our society. For Citizen Kane, it could be the power and destruction caused by greed, and for Double Indemnity, the possibility that lust stains even the good. Regardless of the Ã¢â¬Å"truth,Ã¢â¬ or message sent, the techniques used by both movies allow for viewers to perceive the story in their own fashion.
Friday, September 27, 2019
Consumer Behaviour Business Degree with Marketing - Assignment Example Marketers need to know what their customers need and want and they also need to know how their customers make decisions about buying and using products. As such, this report for StarbuckÃ¢â¬â¢s senior executives seeks to explore different factors that influence the behaviour of different customers towards a particular product or service. The report is divided into two parts and the first part is mainly concerned with establishing the extent to which motivation and the benefits sought by the customers go hand in hand towards the satisfaction of the needs of the targeted consumers. The second part seeks to establish the significance of understanding the family life-cycle and family decision making in order to make the organisation to be in a position to market their products and services more successfully. The report will also focus on how the marketers can focus on different factors which influence customer behaviour in order to positively change it through the effective use of diff erent elements of the marketing mix. Recommendations will be given in both cases. 1. Motivation of the customers is mainly influenced by their behaviour hence it is imperative for the marketers at StarbuckÃ¢â¬â¢s to first establish the behaviour of their consumers in order to be better positioned to satisfy their needs. Hawkins et al (1998, p.7) define customer behaviour as Ã¢â¬Å"the study of individuals, groups, or organisations and processes they use to select, secure, use and dispose of products, services, experiences or ideas to satisfy needs and the impacts these processes have on consumer and society.Ã¢â¬ This definition implies that there are indirect influences on consumer decisions. As such, any profit oriented organisation must satisfy the needs and wants of the customers. The realisation that long term survival of companies is only possible if customer satisfaction has been achieved has led the companies and their employees to motivate the customers towards their pr oducts. In their quest to satisfy their needs, customers also seek to derive benefits from consumption of particular products hence the attempt to satisfy these benefits by the marketers goes hand in hand with the concept of motivation. To understand motivation is to understand why customers do what they do. The philosophy of marketing rests on the premise that customersÃ¢â¬â¢ needs are the starting point from which all other activities can be planned (Cant, 2002). However, there is need to take a motivational approach to establish the needs of the customers which influences their buying behaviour. Basically, motivation occurs when a need is aroused that the customer wants to satisfy. A need refers to something physical or psychological that the body must have to function and develop (Cant, 2002). As such, motivation is the driving force within the individuals that drives them to act in a particular way. According to Kotler & Armstrong (2004), a motivated person is ready to act an d he is influenced by his or her own perceptions of the situation. People have different perceptions of the same stimulus and when they act, they learn something new. In the process, they acquire beliefs and attitudes that will shape their behaviour if they are satisfied that they will derive benefits f
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Strong Arguments In Dispute - Essay Example It is these evidence which is very effective and helps strengthen the argument put forward in this book. In America, there is a serious problem of illiteracy where religion is concerned. Prothero aims to highlight this fact and he does it not only by introducing arguments. Any normal argument may not satisfy the reader and keep ho engrossed. So using his style of writing he injects into the argument numerous facts to support it. These are well-chosen facts properly structured. Prothero uses an extreme amount facts, statistics, quotes, and he even uses murder trial to help him prove this point. These are all great pieces of evidence, but the strongest piece of evidence was the Ã¢â¬Å"Religious Literacy QuizÃ¢â¬ and its results. Prothero gave this literacy quiz to his students at Boston University, and he learned that almost every student knows nothing about religion. He included simple questions like: Ã¢â¬Å"Name a sacred text of HinduismÃ¢â¬ , and the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s answers showed Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ only one in four could name a single Hindu scriptureÃ¢â¬ (Prothero 196-197). He adds further that one in three United States Christians can give the names of the gospels. This piece of evidence was a very successful strategy for persuading his audience. Unlike the facts and quotes he uses, this quiz engages the reader, makes them participate in the text, and has them test their own knowledge against his acquisitions. Once the reader finishes this quiz, it brings the text down to their reality and makes the reader pay attention to how bad the problem actually is. He does this in a two-step process. First, he mentions the question encouraging the reader to participate. This creates a link between the reader and the matter. The reader gets engrossed in the book as he aligns such evidence one after the other in various places.
Dance - Essay Example Revelations uses the idea of repetition very well since it has minimal basic information that gets expanded and decorated in several ways. The entire piece is also rhythmically soothing. In the entire span of the dance the opening theme of the dancers standing together with their arms rising and falling like swans gets repeated severally. This movement is then developed differently with each scene such as to create variation. In the first scene, the dancers start out together then all of them spread but still sticking to a similar routine. The second scene starts out similarly, but for its development, only three dancers remain on stage. The motions of the dancers are rhythmically soothing as they sway in a manner that makes one want to join in. Revelations soothing rhythm reminded me of water as it flows through a river. In some instances the water flows gently but in the course there are also rapids that break the easy flow with sharp, jerky movements. Dancing in the Rain is spread out and busy as there are several dancers each one of them following a unique pattern. In the entire course of the dance, variation is also widely used with no seeming restrictions as to what movements the dancer can incorporate or not. At one point in the dance, two male dancers are dancing concurrently but each one of them sticking to his routine. At another point in the dance, we see a dancer who focuses on moving his feet as he pulsates his chest. Immediately after him, there steps in another dancer who does a summersault effortlessly and synchronizes it into the rhythm of the dance. Dancing in the Rain reminds one of the workings of a well-oiled machine. Like any machine, different parts serve different functions but all work together seamlessly. It is in line with this that those movements though different, all are in harmony. A careful examination of both Dancing in the Rain and Revelations
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
India - Essay Example The cultural differences can cause serious misunderstanding and hamper the way towards building healthy professional and business relationships. Thus it is highly important that before initiating any cross cultural relationship that the differences are understood and respected. The purpose of this paper is to gain awareness and skills in dealing with global diversity. The objective was achieved by doing research about an international country and interviewing a person from that place. A lot of information was gained about the country's location, its people, culture, economy and lifestyle. The country chosen in this case is India. India occupies a strategic position in Asia. It is the seventh largest country in the world by area and second largest by population. It lies in the Southern part of Asia with Arabian Sea on its West, Bay of Bengal to its East and Indian Ocean in South. The country shares borders with China (north-east), Pakistan (west), Bangladesh (in east), Nepal (north-east), and Sri Lanka (south). The Himalayas with highest mountain peak in the world also line the northern part of India. The two important rivers that originate from Himalayas and flow through India are River Indus and Ganges. The River Ganges is the largest in India and has an important cultural and religious value attached to it. (Kwintessential) India has Culture and Customs India has a rich and diverse culture which has been shaped by its interesting history. Starting from the Indus Valley Civilization to the British Rule, India has been a land to many ancient civilizations each with their unique culture and traditions. This history makes India diverse in terms of religions, languages, cultural practices and customs. The Indian culture consists of strict social hierarchy commonly known as caste system. This caste system which separates people into communities based on their family background, education and income, is deeply rooted in India. In India the family system carries great value with many living as extended families. The extended family system creates a hierarchy of relationships with the most elder member as the head of the family making all important decisions and requires deep respect of elders. That is why the when the young greets an elder person of the society, they touch their feet as a symbol of respect and blessing. (Kwintessential) Also when meeting each other, Indians greet by saying "Namaste" accompanied by slightly bowed gesture with hands pressed together vertically in front of chest. Moreover Arranged marriages are preferred in India with the parents and other family members planning the marriage. Mostly the marriages are planned among the same communities. Indians have g reat concern for their families and relatives and tend to adjust their plans and goals that would satisfy the people around them. They have strong family values and engage in long term relationships with true commitment. Weddings are a grand affair in India lasting for weeks and even months for some families. Birth and death ceremonies are also held with great fervor consisting of various rituals that last for many days.
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
The reality of work cultures in the modern economy - Essay Example These issues range from difference in cultures and values as well as laying-off workers as well as closing of some plants aligned to the Cadbury Company. These issues have continued to create a lot of tension between the British public and the Kraft Company over the years since the takeover in 2010 (Rigby and Cohen, 2010, p. 2). The Unite, a workers organization championing the rights of workers in the United Kingdom has constantly pressed the Kraft Company to assure the workers of their jobs at the company after the takeover and at the same time to be honest and truthful with the public. The government has been under pressure to compel the Kraft Company to assure the employees that their job is safe with the company. Kraft and Cadbury cultures in the workplace The values that Kraft and Cadbury advance at the workplace are very different. Kraft Culture Kraft as a company is capitalistic in nature and the major goal is to maximize on the revenue regardless of the effect this may have on the people who work for the company. When the company took over Cadbury, it made a promise that it would not close any plant in the country. However, months down the line the same company closed the Somerdale factory in England. This is despite the fact that they made a promise not to do so. The major reason, according to the company management was a poor analysis of the viability of the company in Somerdale and greater investment that Cadbury Company in Poland.
Monday, September 23, 2019
Global Marketing project - Essay Example Furthermore, some cultures prefer to use herbal drugs for purposes of cleaning their teeth. This cultural value is common in most countries of Asia and Africa (Jeannet and Hubert, 33). People might be reluctant to try new products, and hence the company should develop persuasive types of advertisements. Aesthetics is also another cultural factor that Colgate should consider while developing its marketing campaigns. Aesthetics refers to a sense of beauty or good taste. To have an aesthetic value, the company should consider the methods it uses to package the Colgate product. The company should package its products in a manner that is attractive to the eyes of its target customers. This involves using good colors to design the packages of the product (Jeannet and Hubert, 39). Furthermore, there is a need of developing a good brand name for the company. Language is an important factor that should determine the marketing capability of an organization. In developing a marketing campaign, an organization should use the language that is clearly understood by every people. For example, when marketing Colgate in England, the company should use the English language (Ryan and Calvin, 22). The same applies in China, and other regions of the world. Religion plays a role in determining the marketing campaign of Colgate. Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Buddhism are the major religions in the world (Paley, 56). For example, one of the religious principles of Islam is the separation of sexes. This would give the marketer an opportunity to access females, and advertise their products. Religion affects the consumption patterns of a particular group. The Islamic teachings does not allow for exorbitant profits, hence the organization will have to analyze its pricing strategy. Making exorbitant profits is a sign that the company is exploiting its workers and consumers. The level of education is an important element that a company has to consider while
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Everglades national park Essay National Park stretches over 1. illion acres and is the largest wilderness in the Southeast. Wetlands and swamps cover half of the land which contains 10,000 islands! The Everglades, called the River of Grass because the area is largely a river sometimes 60 miles wide, is not a marsh or swamp. In the past hundred years, people have been digging canals and building dams in the Everglades so they could take water out of it. They built so many canals and drained so much water that the natural flow is interrupted. Acadia National Park Acadia National Park was established in 1919 by President Wilson, originally called as Lafayette National Park. Acadia National Park is located on Mount Desert and covers half of the island. This park is the first park east of the Mississippi river. 120 miles in Acadia National Park are hiking and biking trails, fishing, rock climbing, and boating. The highest mountain in it is the Cadillac Mountain and the shortest is the Flying Mountain. Jordans Pond is the deepest lake at 150 feet deep. Acadia National Park is the tenth most visited National Park. A National Park is a park the government takes up the responsibility of. National Parks are built to preserve land and educate people on nature.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Crimes And Misdemeanors Analysis Philosophy Essay Woody Allens film, Crimes and Misdemeanors, explores the different ways that ethics play in the inner workings of the human mind. Throughout the film, the audience witnesses the roles that ethics play in the lives of five different men: Judah Rosenthal, a successful ophthalmologist; Clifford Stern, a struggling documentary filmographer; Lester, a famous producer; Ben, a rabbi whose sense of sight is beginning to fail; and Louis Levy, a philosophical theorist. By the end of the film, each character demonstrates, through his words and actions, how his own system of ethics affects the choices he makes in life. The films first central character to be introduced is Judah Rosenthal, a successful ophthalmologist who seems to be living a perfect life; he is wealthy, successful, and lives with a loving wife. However, despite how he has everything that would seemingly lead to a happy life, he remains troubled by his immoral affair with Dolores Paley, a lonesome woman whom he met years ago. Despite how he managed to keep his affair a secret, Judah realizes that his success is put in danger as Dolores begins to pressure him to make their relationship public. She threatens that unless Judah fulfills her wishes, she would jeopardize him revealing his shady financial transactions and their scandalous affair to the public, including to his wife and friends. Judah must now make a decision that is ultimately an ethical dilemma: he could either do the right thing by confessing his misdeed and hope for the best, which could mean potentially ruining everything hes worked for, or he could save himself the tr ouble by hiring his brother Jack to find someone to murder Dolores and to bring to an end all of his troubles. Though he initially hesitates to do so, Judah ultimately chooses the latter, believing that life is harsh and empty of values and that the murdering of Dolores is the only way he can save himself. As the film progresses, it is revealed that Judah believes that we live in a cold world, where there is no God on whom we can look up to. He states that, God is a luxury that [he] cant afford, and reveals that he would ultimately choose not to confess and beg his wife for forgiveness. In his eyes, such mercy does not exist; he believes that, in the real world, one must do whatever it takes to achieve happiness and success because there exists no higher power to maintain justice. Moreover, one must fend for himself and independently determine what is right, what is wrong, and what is best for him. This ethical system, which prioritizes self-preservation, is what ultimately causes J udah to murder Dolores. On the other hand, Ben, the rabbi, at one point states that Judah maintains a spark of [moral] notion deep inside. This notion, which leads him to know in his heart the morality of his actions, is what causes him to become anxious and tense; it is what reminds him that Dolores isnt just an insect that he can step on. Judah conclusively chooses to murder Dolores, but tries to justify his actions because acted using a utilitarian rationale, protecting his success and doing what is best for the most people. In the end, Judahs decisions and his ethical rationale, which emphasizes self-preservation, have their roots in his view of the life as being cold and harsh. A character that has a minor, but important, role in the film is Ben the rabbi. He serves somewhat as a foil to Judah: as a man of religion, he believes that the world is a lawful and loving place. He believes that the world has a moral structure, with real meaning, [Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦] and a higher power. Without this structure, the world would have no basis to live. Hence, it becomes evident that Ben lives his life according to his system of ethics, which revolves around his faith in the omniscient God. The choices he makes pose no problem for him because he puts all of his faith and trust in a universe that is loving and lawful. When he counsels Judah, he simply tells him that he must simply accept life as it is presented because God will eventually justify everything in the future. The fact that Ben is physically blind has some symbolic significance: he disregards the wickedness and darkness of the world and blindly trusts his faith. Despite the fact that his blind faith may be mistaken, Ben accepts God over truth and believes that it will lead to a better life than all those that doubt. The films second central character is Clifford Stern, a struggling documentary filmmaker. Clifford is also a virtuous man, but in a different manner. Rather than putting all of his faith into one entity or idea, like Ben, Clifford lives by his own terms. He decides for himself what is right or wrong by examining the effects an action has on the world. He spends his time looking at the effects that his words and actions will lead to rather than the happiness or success to come. This is demonstrated through the manner in which Clifford creates his documentaries: he focuses on material that he sees as significant, such as pollution, cancer, and philosophy, rather than trying to earn a quick buck by simply doing what other demand of him. Though Cliffords loving affection for Halley Reed despite his marriage may be seen as being immoral, it is ethically acceptable in his perspective because not only he knows that he and his wife are bound to become divorced, but also because he is trying to find true love with Halley, a pursuit that he considers to be a fundamental aspect of life. It becomes evident that Clifford is an idealist; he is always looking for meaning in both his documentaries and his life, and this ultimately serves as the basis of what he sees as right and wrong. Clifford remains steadfast in his moral beliefs despite how they may stop him from obtaining what he desires most. For instance, he makes Lester appear absurd and shallow in his biographical documentary of him despite how it could have brought Clifford recognition and success. Despite how the film closes with Clifford feeling dejected, he is still portrayed as a man of virtue who remains steadfast in his system of ethics. The films foil to Clifford is a character named Lester, a famous Hollywood producer. His system of ethics mainly relies on whatever makes him the most successful and happy. To Lester, whatever bring the most satisfaction is right while whatever brings failure is wrong. As a result, Lester does whatever he pleases and seems to completely ignores the moral aspect of things. This is particularly the reason why Lester is portrayed as being crude, arrogant, and womanizing. Additionally, Lester is the complete opposite of Clifford when it comes to the significance of the material he produces-he only cares about the ratings because they will grant him wealth, fame, and a closet full of Emmys. Lesters shallow demeanor can be further seen in his seemingly only ethical question in the film when he asks, Am I a phony? Immediately, however, he resolves the troubling though by believing that others are merely jealous of him, and he proceeds to quickly forget about it. The fact that Lester is able to quickly forget about the troubling matter supports the view that he is faced with seemingly no inner conflict due to how he merely accepts what grants him happiness instead of actually considering the moral aspects of his actions. Another character in the film that has a unique ethical system that he abides by is Louis Levy, a philosopher that Clifford features in his documentaries. Levy uses love to judge whether something is right or wrong. He states that only love gives meaning to the indifferent universe. He believes that life is simply a search for the thing that will allow us to survive the indifferent universe and that the actions people take to attain it makes them who they are. But if love is not found and people feel that it isnt worth it anymore, people begin to feel an inner anxiety and pressure. This struggle was what led Levy to commit suicide or go out the window. Hence, by observing the actions and the words of the films different characters, the different types of ethical system and ways people judge right and wrong are revealed. From an examination of each characters distinct set of virtues and ideas of morality, the audience is able to comprehend the nature and the reasoning behind their decisions and actions.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Cultural Bias In Assessment In the society of today, there are various educators who believe in assessment as proper method to measure the performance of a child in school as well as the overall achievement of a specific school system. The assessment may be presented in the form of verbal, written, or multiple choice, and it usually pertains to certain academic subjects in the school curriculum. Recently, many educators began to issue standardized tests to measure the intelligence of a common student body. (Rudner, 1989) These standardized tests were initially created to reveal the success in institutional school programs, and exhibit the abilities of students today. The standardized tests can reveal the strengths and weaknesses of a student as well as the admission into certain programs. The test results also assist various schools in determining the proper curriculum, evaluate a specific school system, or a particular school related program. There are numerous types of standardized tests in which educators choose to measure the academic level of students. The first common standardized test, the standardized achievement test, are used to measure how much knowledge students have retained from a particular subject. The results generally assist teachers in designing achievement programs in each subject area, such as reading, math language skills, spelling, or science. (Samuda, 1990) The second common standardized test is known as the Standardized aptitude tests. Instead of focusing on a particular academic subject, the aptitude tests measure a broad range of skills that would ensure success during the school career. The skills include daily activities such as verbal ability, mechanical ability, creativity, cleric... ...hoice questions on the SAT up to date. Women are able to do better on exams which do not require a specific time limit. The Talent Indentification Program, proved that women "performed significantly better under untimed conditions than under timed. In fact the young women performed as well as males or even better under untimed conditions." Although the tests have still been proven to be bias against women, the large amount of mulitiple choice questions as well as the timed tests still remain in todays society. Although standardized testing has been proven to be ineffective, the creators of the tests are still humans of different races. As a creator of the tests much be created to represent all races and ethnic backrounds. When considering the contents of the tests, people should be looked at as an individual and not placed uder a category with their race.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
The Battle of Agnicourt Known as one of the most famous and greatest battles of history, the Battle of Agnicourt was definitely one of the more glorious accomplishments of King Henry V as well as a significant victory in his invasion of France. Fought in the later years of the Hundred Years War, the Battle of Agnicourt was a part of a campaign of conquest set up by Henry V in 1415 that included the invasion of France and Normandy. Although heavily criticized about the campaign, Henry V went ahead with his plans and began his army on a march through France. Due to heavily guarded fords to cross the English channel by the French, the English, led by Henry V, opted to cross at the city of Calais, and marched upstream to get there. Before arriving there, the English found out that the passage to Calais was guarded by a big army of French led by Marshal Boucicault in a path through a forest near the village of Agnicourt. Henry V did not wish to fight, for he knew he was at a disadvantage. The English had now marched for 17 days with only one day's rest and the weary, hungry army had shrunken due to disease. So Henry V offered to surrender his prisoners and all he had gained in France if the French army would grant them passage through. The answer was that he had to fight. The battle began on October 25, 1998 1415, with the two marching armies of the English and the French meeting in the path between two woods, close to Agnicourt. The English army was no bigger then 5,000 men and about four fifths of them were lightly armored archers. The French on the other hand were five to six times bigger than that, with most of the force consisting of fully equipped men-at-arms. Basing their plan of battle on a successful English model, the French formed a short, three line front across the passage. However, the French deviated from the English model forming a different formation that would ultimately become their demise (the archers and crossbow men were placed at the rear of the wings and took little part in the action).
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
From the very beginning of the poem, the character Achilles is one of the major foci of the story. His actions of lack of actions have enormous effects upon how the plot unfolds. Starting with the fight with Agamemnon and his withdrawal from the battle, to the death of Patroklos, and finally to the slaying of Hektor, Achilles and his emotions decide the fate of many Greek and Trojan warriors. It is his struggle against his anger, pride, loyalty, and love that make this poem one of a tragic nature, rather than just a gruesome account of a war. Although the reputation of Achilles claims him to be the perfect warrior, strongest of the Greeks, the poem spends more time on the man than on his reputation. I think the most obvious presentation of this occurs in the final book and is consistent with the character earlier in the poem. I believe the most speculation about inconsistencies in AchillesÃ¢â¬â¢ character would center on his savageness towards the Trojans, especially Hektor, after the death of Patroklos, and his sensitivity towards PriamÃ¢â¬â¢s plea for his sonÃ¢â¬â¢s body. It could be considered odd that Achilles is so understanding to Priam and the burial of PriamÃ¢â¬â¢s son, when not that long ago Achilles was dragging the body of Hektor around the grave of Patroklos. This is the same corpse that Achilles vowed to feed to the dogs, the man who slew AchillesÃ¢â¬â¢ dearest companion and led him to swallow his pride and return to the battlefield. I believe that this is not the same Achilles we saw ... Achilles Essay -- essays research papers From the very beginning of the poem, the character Achilles is one of the major foci of the story. His actions of lack of actions have enormous effects upon how the plot unfolds. Starting with the fight with Agamemnon and his withdrawal from the battle, to the death of Patroklos, and finally to the slaying of Hektor, Achilles and his emotions decide the fate of many Greek and Trojan warriors. It is his struggle against his anger, pride, loyalty, and love that make this poem one of a tragic nature, rather than just a gruesome account of a war. Although the reputation of Achilles claims him to be the perfect warrior, strongest of the Greeks, the poem spends more time on the man than on his reputation. I think the most obvious presentation of this occurs in the final book and is consistent with the character earlier in the poem. I believe the most speculation about inconsistencies in AchillesÃ¢â¬â¢ character would center on his savageness towards the Trojans, especially Hektor, after the death of Patroklos, and his sensitivity towards PriamÃ¢â¬â¢s plea for his sonÃ¢â¬â¢s body. It could be considered odd that Achilles is so understanding to Priam and the burial of PriamÃ¢â¬â¢s son, when not that long ago Achilles was dragging the body of Hektor around the grave of Patroklos. This is the same corpse that Achilles vowed to feed to the dogs, the man who slew AchillesÃ¢â¬â¢ dearest companion and led him to swallow his pride and return to the battlefield. I believe that this is not the same Achilles we saw ...
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
How does Shakespeare make act one scene five of Romeo Juliet dramatically effective? Ã¢â¬ËWhen youÃ¢â¬â¢re in love, you canÃ¢â¬â¢t sleep because reality is better than your dreamsÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬â Dr Seuss In Ã¢â¬ËRomeo and JulietÃ¢â¬â¢ they have this dream of being together but it is conflicted with the reality of their families. Unfortunately they follow this dream which ultimately ends up in death; a testament to how powerful love really is. ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Romeo and Juliet is known as the greatest love story of all time. In the 16th century, people didnÃ¢â¬â¢t marry for love they married for wealth, a lot like when JulietÃ¢â¬â¢s Dad arranges her to marry Paris. This is why Shakespeare had to incorporate violence and conflict to grab the audienceÃ¢â¬â¢s attention. The themes are love, hate, disloyalty, fate and sin. Shakespeare would have to attract grab everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s attention throughout these plays, as many different people came to watch and I think he chose these sins because they can be used for every different characters personality. Shakespeare would do this by incorporating different religions and fancy language like the reference to the Ã¢â¬ËPentecostÃ¢â¬â¢ and using the word Ã¢â¬ËpilgrimÃ¢â¬â¢ to describe Romeo. During the whole play the word Ã¢â¬Å"sinÃ¢â¬ is used a lot by Juliet, Tybalt and Romeo. I think this is to show the audience that all of them will have a lot to be sorry for in the near future, as a sin is something you do wrong or something you ask god for forgiveness over. It is a strong word although itÃ¢â¬â¢s so short, as it foreshadows the outcome of peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s actions. Their punishments, so to speak. The nurse suddenly interrupts the sonnet showing the audience that there love isnÃ¢â¬â¢t a smooth ride already. The break in Romeo and JulietÃ¢â¬â¢s conversation foreshadows the breaking of life, RomeoÃ¢â¬â¢s banishment and JulietÃ¢â¬â¢s wedding to Paris as these things are all the things that lead up to, the consequence of Romeo and JulietÃ¢â¬â¢s death. The nurse then starts talking to Romeo and toying with his emotions by talking about marriage as a source of money (meaning Paris. ) The nurse isnÃ¢â¬â¢t being very loyal to Juliet at this point as she is saying Ã¢â¬Å"he that can lay hold of her shall have the chinks. Ã¢â¬ This is basically selling her, and talking about how all people will want is the money out of it not love. ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s choice of language for Romeo after the nurse has told him that Juliet is a Capulet, is all about money. Ã¢â¬Å"AccountÃ¢â¬ ¦ DebtÃ¢â¬ This is implying that there will be a price to pay, because of his love for his Ã¢â¬Å"foe. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Trifling foolish banquetÃ¢â¬ are CapuletÃ¢â¬â¢s words when he is dismissing people from his party. These words show the audience that he hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t noticed Romeo, Juliet and Tybalts threats so therefore the Ã¢â¬Å"foolÃ¢â¬ is Capulet. Ironically enough Juliet then says Ã¢â¬Å"My grave is like to be my wedding bed. This a coincidence because she dies on the morning of the marriage to Paris, Dies with her husband next to her, and she dies the day after she married Romeo. Within JulietÃ¢â¬â¢s speech at the end, it contains a lot of strong language such as opposites like Ã¢â¬Å"loveÃ¢â¬ ¦ loathedÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"earlyÃ¢â¬ ¦ late. Ã¢â¬ This links back to the light and dark opposites when Romeo talked about t he doves and crows, trying to show us again that its a doomed relationship and it is an internal battle between love and hate. Hate between the two families but love between Romeo and Juliet, but unfortunately the hate stops the love.
Monday, September 16, 2019
LVMH is the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s leading luxury products group. The strategy of LVMH is based on combining LVMH fashion and leather goods. Net sales have grown 57% in the past two years. In 2001 LVMH had a strong earning growth in a slumping economy. This was due to the strength of the Louis Vuitton brand, which is the world leader in luxury goods and benefited the younger brands from the synergies that developed within the business group. Each company could focus on their core business design and marketing while they benefited from shared financial and technical expertise. Each one is moving toward its objective and improving sales. Mr. Carcelle made strategic plans to establish the organizations overall goals. LVMHÃ¢â¬â¢s goal is to grow faster than their competitors. The logic of acquiring several companies over a short period of time was based on the internal growth of LVMH. They had a strong support of brand image; they are number one in the world with 50 brands and have a strong presence in all luxury sectors. They have a good geographical balance and control over distribution. The strategy was based on the constant and sustainable growth of multi brands. CarcelleÃ¢â¬â¢s thought is what happened for the Louis Vuitton brand can and will happen for his new smaller brands. Carcelle is in for the long run and understands the time lines. LVMH is building up design teams and continue to expand and renovate their worldwide store network. They continue to invest in advertising and promotion while making the capital expenditures required to increase production capacity and meet the strong demand for their produc ts. Yves Carcell is charismatic and a visionary leader. He has the ability to create and articulate a realistic, credible, and attractive vision of the future and improved upon the present situation. He is often at his desk well before dawn, but before sitting down to an early morning meeting in his Paris office, Carcelle, 54 invites a visitor to step on to the balcony and watch the sun rise over the Seine. Ã¢â¬Å"IsnÃ¢â¬â¢t it beautiful?Ã¢â¬ he asks with a delighted grin (Business Week-online June 17, 2002) His twenty years working in sales and marketing for consumer goods companies made him the logicalÃ person to preside over LVMH fashion group. Carcelle is a fierce defender of his brands and it is said that he bawled out a French government official attending a Vuitton store opening in Bangkok when he spotted her carrying a fake Vuitton bag. That certainly shows attention to detail. Carcelle is fluent in English, Spanish, and French. His experience and charm make him as comfortable talking with shop managers and designers as he is conducting high powered business negotiations with CEOs. He oversees LVMHÃ¢â¬â¢s most valuable portfolio of brands. He must also keep tight control over a global network of factories and stores, without snuffing out the creative spark that gives the luxury business its luster. He was responsible for bringing in new designers to spiff up VuittonÃ¢â¬â¢s styling and expand the product line, while terminating franchise agreements so that LVMH regained exclusive control of retailing. CarcelleÃ¢â¬â¢s leadership has been effective. Last year, fueled largely by Vuitton, the fashion group accounted for nearly 30% of LVMHÃ¢â¬â¢s $10.8 billion in sales, and more than 80% of its $1.4 billion operating profit. (Business Week-online June17, 2002)
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Reflecting feelings: Reflecting feelings involves identifying client emotions and then paraphrasing this affective component back to the client. Group leaders use this skill to let members know that they are being heard and understood. 2. Confronting: Confrontation is used to assist clients to identify and consider discrepancies in their thoughts, behaviors, and feelings in order to resolve their problems and issues. Confrontation could be seen as an attack; therefore many leaders shy away from onfrontation because they fear its possible repercussions.Skilled group counselors only confront when they care about the person, and they do so in a way that gives the person ample opportunity to consider what is being said. 3. Interpreting: Interpreting is to provide clients with a broader understanding of their behaviors, attitudes, thoughts, and feelings. If a group leader is not sensitive to the client willingness or unwillingness to accept it the interpretation may be rejected.Interpreti ng too soon or in a dogmatic way or encouraging the members to become dependent on the leader to provide meanings and answers are common mistakes of interpreting. 4. Goal setting: Goal setting allows a client to have a long-term vision and short-term motivation. By setting goals one can achieve more, improve self- confidence, and increase motivation to achieve the set goal. In group counseling the productive goal is at the core, to help members select and clarify their own specific goals. 5.Active Listening: Active listening involves paraphrasing and summarizing the client's emotions back to them, asking questions to express what they feel or believe or asking questions to achieve a better understanding of what is being communicated. As a group leader the goal is to listen, many leaders focus to intently on the content and in doing so do not pay enough attention to the way in which group members express themselves. Reference Corey, G. (2012). Theory and practice of group counseling (8th ed. ) Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole ed. )
Saturday, September 14, 2019
What Is a successful life? Is it a life without concern about money, without caring about interpersonal legislations, or without suffering any discomforts? To me, if it were a life without caring about others, people would not feel happiness. If it were a life of just working hard, people would lose their family. If it were a life of being selfish all the time, people would not feel the taste of love. Therefore, In order to have a happy life, we need to control our willpower, have a good relationship with others and then live with any pains.Will power plays a very important role in one's life. When we were born, everything looks interesting to us. Or in some other cases, we are looking for troubles that we are not intended to. That is why kids need to be educated. Facts such as failing to control one's Impulses, low frustration tolerance, and failing to plan ahead always happen for a young kid. That Is why young children need constant supervision from our parents or teachers. In thes e cases, most of the will power Is established In one's childhood.As an example from the reading, Ã¢â¬ Don't, the secret of self-controlÃ¢â¬ , Joana Lealer explain well why our young generation needs a good self-control to be successful in our life. His article summarizes research on self-control in children and how this factor will predict success later in their life. In his articles, researchers showed four-year-old kids a marshmallow, and told them that they Ã¢â¬Å"could eat one marshmallow right away, or If they were willing to wait while he stepped out for a few minutes, they could have two marshmallow when he returned. (Lealer 2009) some kids ate one marshmallow very soon, while 30% were able to wait until the researcher returned 15 minutes later-?a very long time in the life of four-year-old. Interestingly, the researchers also followed up these kid twenty years later, they found that the kids who could delay 15 minutes had an average S. A. T score that was 210 points ra ter that those who delay 30 seconds or less. (Lealer 2009) To their credit, those kids who could delay longer had fewer behavioral problems, dealt with stressful situations and maintain friendship better.I am not saying those well behave kids would be successful in the future, but at least they can control their will power, which will help them build their life better. As I was in my high school year, I met some friends who are extremely out of self-control. In their cases, they prefer having troubles with teachers and school disciplines rather than studying. They didn't come to school on time, and do the homework by themselves. I think they are In a bad they told me they feel so regret at their high school years. From them I know some of their fellows went to Jail after.That is the reason why we need a good self-control, no one want to spend the rest of his or her life in Jail. Besides having a strong will power, we also need to communicate well with others. The scale of being succ essful or happy is not measured by how much cash is in your pocket, but the relationships with others. More precisely, a good mental health really matters in one's life. In the article, Ã¢â¬Å"What makes us happy', Joshua Wolf Sheen argues the how interpersonal allegations effects one's life. Sheen s article is based on the Grant Study.The grant study was longitudinal research by subjects had been followed for about 70 years. The subjects were all Harvard male student from the classes of 1942, 43 and 44. The main researcher of this study, George Villain, thought, Ã¢â¬Å"the only things that really matters in life are your relationships to other peopleÃ¢â¬ . (Cheekiness) Villain regards the relationship to other people as the most important factor of people's life. It is very important to maintain close interpersonal relationships not only with our family, but also with our friends and other people.Sandra Bullock, for an example, explains us well why we need to maintain good interp ersonal relationships. In the article, Ã¢â¬ The Sandra Bullock TradeÃ¢â¬ , David Brooks persuade his audiences that, Ã¢â¬ marital happiness or interpersonal relationships is more than an accomplishment in a profession. Ã¢â¬ (Brooks 2010) In the article, Brooks discusses two things that happened to Sandra Bullock in one month, she found out that her husband was cheating on her and she won an Academy Award. Although as a normal person, we don't have a clue how Bullock feels, we know that Bullock doesn't have a happy family.Although Bullock is so successful in her career, she has no support from his family. In my opinion, I think she put too much effort into her career and she loses her family. Once one's family is not on their back, their success will not count. Besides having a good self-control and interpersonal relationship, we also need to face our pains. The more difficulties we have met, the more experiences we will have for life, and the more successful we will be in our life. From Sheens article, Ã¢â¬ What makes us Happy', he illustrates how pains related to one's happy life.I really like his mint about interpersonal relations. However, I disagree with what you said about Ã¢â¬Å"your feeling of how happy your life was depended on how you think, not on how many difficulties you had met. Ã¢â¬ (Sheen 2007) In my opinions, life is based on how many difficulties you have met. Because the more pains you suffered, the more experienced you will be, and the easier we will learn how to deal with them. In my family, my dad always gives me advice upon any difficulty I have met. Because he suffered those pains before, and he Just doesn't want to come through with them again.But there must be one day he can't advice me any more, because my dad and I are in a different mode of life. Thus, I need to be fully experienced to build my family. With good self-control, maintaining good interpersonal relation, and living with any pains are the ways to build a successful life. Different people suffer different lives. From the time we were born, we will face the questionnaire upon how our life will be. No one can answer this question, no one will know how one's life will be, and no one can conclude whether the life is successful or not. We start, and we should
Friday, September 13, 2019
Compare and contrast two articles - Essay Example In comparison, MaxÃ¢â¬â¢s Understanding Comparison in Criminal Justice Research: An Interpretive Perspective journal explores the implications on interpretive philosophies. It investigates the values and beliefs in the context of social sciences developed by intellectuals such as Peter Winch and Max Weber. The objectives of these works are comparative research in criminal justice. It addresses the definitive meaning personality of human activities. However, unlike postmodernism and constructivism this theory pays attribute to the disposition and goals of institutional realities. Therefore, the principle of this assignment is to compare and contrast the presentations of the two authors with close reference to methods and findings applied in each of the documents. It is easy for the reader to notice these scholarly pieces are similar in not one but many ways. Michelle Newton goes on to articulate her profound knowledge in giving simplified evidences that gives the booklover an excell ent resource that aids in accounting for the promises of degrees in sociology. She also exposes students to career paths that they did not previously take into deep appreciation and may not have known the existence of these opportunities. This serves as the basis for incorporating new perspectives of populations marginalized or in other words the voices from the field. As an accumulation of the connection, Max TraversÃ¢â¬â¢ draws heavily on American empirical and experimental lessons that make use of qualitative techniques to give reason to statistical variation. They are similar in that they both reveal and display interpretive traditions and often find it complex to free them from activists assumptions. They fail to conduct investigations about how social players engage and understand in comparison to each and every day lifestyle. In conclusion, they also present a discussion of the data gathered, processed, analyzed and documented without the exclusion of the procedures brought into play in ethnographic studies of children's courts in Australia. This is a demonstration of how consistent and thorough come within reach of the interpretive structure (Michelle, 2009). The main difference is the fact that Mitchell and Max submit applications that does not utilize parallel modus operandi of gathering and processing data. The ways to inquire for information of MaxÃ¢â¬â¢s work involves the journeying of unconventional agendas and mechanical approaches that are very significant in knowing criminal justice. It is imperative to consider that these systems should take account of marginalized voices for the enhancement of the richness of our apprehension of justice and crime. Max introduces his ideas through citing other affiliated authors such as Hillary Potter and Joanne Belknap confronting students to seriously consider how their identities, beliefs, and life experiences help them in selecting the profession. This serves the purpose of guiding the impacts the cri minal justice work and linked views. Max gathers a lot of information from already published academic journals in the draft of his final copies. This assures that the execution of the secondary information offers credible correlation to the main points that he wishes to make known to the audience and reader. In comparison, Michelle believes that in social sciences many acknowledge the fact that philosophical postulations underpin dissimilar programs of pragmatic
Thursday, September 12, 2019
Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America Vol II, Part 1, Chap 1-11 - Essay Example Alexis believes that the doctrines and methods of Descartes, Luther and Voltaire are applied best in America (Gutenberg). Although Americans are more liberal in thought and practice yet Christianity holds a mystical power; with politics or laws not affecting change on the religious beliefs (Gradesaver). Alexis regards that Americans are deep rooted in their ideology because they have not gone through any democratic revolution, thus no major shift in their ideological concepts has resulted (Tocqueville). Alexis says that societies only prosper when they have thoughts, ideas and actions that they have in common, and commonalities result from common belief systems and not following individual paths (Gradesaver). Tocqueville suggests that man does not have enough time to define and explain all the truths on his own and thus has to believe already established truths, which have either been established by people of superior intellect or by societies (Gutenberg). He thinks that every manÃ¢â¬â¢s intellect complies with the higher authority to a varying degree; no mind can be completely independent and free of all authority (Gradesaver). American people are more apt to believe in religion due to the majority of society believing in it, as the majority of people are believed to have equal capability of believing the truth thus; religion finds its strength based in public opinion (Tocqueville). Alexis believes that the tendency of American people to investigate every truth independently; unconsciously leads them to reverting to the behavior and attitudes of mankind and thus a generalization of views emerges (Tocqueville). Americans believe in equality which gives birth to generalization; the English are more inclined towards an aristocratic way of life, thus leading to particularity and negating individuality (Gutenberg). On the other hand, according to Tocqueville, Americans do not revert to
Wednesday, September 11, 2019
What is the difference between imperialism and colonialims - Essay Example These raw materials were then to be crafted into finished products that the colonies must then buy from the home nation. The focus of the home nation under colonialism is settlement and establishment of colonies in areas that provided economic advantages. All they expect from the colonies is a steady flow of raw goods and fixed export markets for those same finished goods. Imperialism is different in that the goal in establishing an empire is political as well as economic. The goal of imperialism is to make other nations or territories conform to an ideology that is supported at the imperial center. In colonialism, the interaction and focus of power is in the colonies. Imperialism involves the conquest of lands on the periphery of the empire, subjugating them to the ideology that emanates from the center of the empire. While colonialism and imperialism both have economic advantages for the home nation or center of power, imperialism gains this advantage through forced conformity to an ideology while colonialism creates this advantage through economic, not political
Tuesday, September 10, 2019
Case Study - Essay Example This incentive makes workers perform better. By making their own steel, Nucor cut down costs. This made the company more profitable. When making a product, it is normally cheaper to make your own supply. The making of steel made Nucor more profitable. Waits on shipment were eliminated, a cheaper process was used, and more effective steel joists could be made. The supply of steel allowed Nucor to bid on contracts for steel joists all across the United States. Finally the reason Nucor has performed better in the past is the cut of losses. If a division, acquisition, or venture did not perform as expected, Nucor would close the division or sell the losing acquisition or venture. This helped the remaining successful divisions make a profitable corporation. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s strategic positioning has been a factor in the success. The company has always changed with the times. From the beginning as a car maker to merge with a Nuclear Company, and finally as a steel manufacturer, Nucor has changed with the times in order to make a profit. Since making steel and steel joists was profitable, Nucor focused on making cheap steel products. The restructuring of the corporate level also was strategic positioning. When Iverson took over his method of vice presidents, division heads, and so forth worked in the beginning. However, after Iverson retired, a change needed to be made in order to keep up with other corporations. The strategic options for the future need to include more change. With the bad economy, development using steel joists will slow down. Cut backs will be necessary. Production cuts will have to be faced. However, the recession will not last forever. Nucor needs to look into other options for their steel. Oil rigs need steel pipes, decks, and platforms. Focusing on this industry until the economy picks up could be the answer. Development might slow down, but it will not stop. Nucor can focus on other industries, but
Critical analysis - Essay Example Nevertheless, the real issue at hand is the motive behind taking the image. Clearly, there is a voyeuristic element with the way the images are being represented through the lens. It can be observed how the acts are conforming to the intended obscenity, the poor lighting, and the predating conditions before YoshiyukiÃ¢â¬â¢s encounter with the couples. No one could honestly testify the real intent behind the scopophilia but judging from a criticÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view, there seems to be no cooperation between Yoshiyuki and the group of people. In the context of photography, while Yoshiyuki did not anticipate the happenstance, the drive that sticks him with the ongoing public demonstration could be related to personal photography, wherein he intended to seize the image for personal use (Wells 56); Ã¢â¬Å"here is a person making choices, not a stationary camera recording what passes before it (Ã¢â¬Å"Gefter, Sex in the Park, and Its Sneaky SpectatorsÃ¢â¬ ). The photo also suggests o f his nature as a photographer: a voyeur. Although, he vehemently disagreed that he is one. He asserts that Ã¢â¬Å"My intention was to capture what happened in the parks, so I was not a real Ã¢â¬ËvoyeurÃ¢â¬â¢ like themÃ¢â¬ (Gefter, Ã¢â¬Å"Sex in the Park, and Its Sneaky SpectatorsÃ¢â¬ ). ... As a matter of fact, the Ã¢â¬Å"curator of photography at the Museum of Modern Art, agrees that YoshiyukiÃ¢â¬â¢s work falls into a photographic traditionÃ¢â¬ (Gefter, Ã¢â¬Å"Sex in the Park, and Its Sneaky SpectatorsÃ¢â¬ ). In the past and maybe until today, Ã¢â¬Å"aesthetic and subject matter of the photograph was considered as only of secondary importanceÃ¢â¬ (49); what is more important is the image itself. Looking at the photo, it is rather conspicuous that no artistic impression was intended; considering the ephemerality of such activity, the motive behind the photo is the image alone Ã¢â¬â an idea that conforms to personal photography Ã¢â¬â in which the practitioner was more concerned of capturing the image rather than understanding its significance. Indeed, obscenity does not entail good standing; hence, this has been discounted in the process, perhaps, due to the voyeuristic purpose of the photograph. As mentioned earlier, it can be argued that obscenity does not entail good standing. If this is so, what was the real motive of the practitioner? Voyeurism and scopophilia can be very subjective oftentimes and so Yoshiyuki, as he proclaimed himself a voyeur, points towards what he can take out of the Ã¢â¬Å"perfectÃ¢â¬ encounter; although, the picture expresses manifold significance in the society. The picture somehow signifies the employment of nudity as an indicator of certain types of prejudice in that body is essential to "colonial modes of power, including the processes of representation" (84). The picture relatively depicts a social stratification in the Japanese civilization, in which women are significantly controlled by the men. Photography, in history, took part in the employment of modernist thinking that criticizes Ã¢â¬Å"high and low culturesÃ¢â¬ , which are
Monday, September 9, 2019
Google Case Study - Research Paper Example SWOT Analysis SWOT Analysis is the one of the most effective and widely used tool to conduct situational analysis. SWOT stands for Strength, Weakness, Opportunities and Threats. SWOT analysis takes into account both the internal and external environments of a firm. Internally, the framework analyses the strengths and weaknesses with respect to the various key dimensions such as productivity, human resources, finances, capacity, etc. Externally, the framework analyses the market trends, economic conditions, regulations, technology, etc (Ferrell & Hartline, 2008). The SWOT analysis of Google can lead to a very good understanding of the processes that are in place in Google and its positioning in terms of its competitors. Strengths Google has got various strengths in the industry that makes it stand out. The basic strengths that makes Google the market leader has been described here Ã¯Æ'Ë Google is the innovator and the pioneer in the field of search engines thereby giving it a head start over the other competitors Ã¯Æ'Ë The management style is open minded and Laissez Faire at its best. Thereby, the managerial decisions keep getting taken very fast that leads to avoidance of lag time and increased efficiency Ã¯Æ'Ë Large amount of incumbent cash and steady cash flow Ã¯Æ'Ë Although the switch value of the product is not much or almost nil, but the customers have shown immense amount of loyalty to the products of Google and Google as a brand The retention policies and the compensation policies at Google are some of the best in the world. Therefore, the attrition in Google is extremely low as compared to the general industry. This particular factor translates into the tapping of the intellectual capital for them which would allow for the better leverage of market conditions. This particular feature also results in the cost efficiency as a lesser amount of money has to spend in the rehiring process. The other factor that lowers the cost is the absence of training the new hires Most of the data is translated, thereby, it can be used by a large number of the international customers The products are compatible to most of the data platforms and hardware available in the market and therefore provide the competitive edge as there are no switching costs involved in the change from an existing platform being used by the user There is a strong amount of support that the company has been enjoying from the educational community maki ng it the medium of choice as a search engine The products are considered to be extremely chic by the urbane customers that add to its appeal It has got very high profile corporate interactions with the top notch companies like Sun and Apple that make the products extremely innovative and the user finds them easy to use. It also results in great amount of acceptance of the products aiming the corporate lines. As for example, the Sun intersperses the Google features with the Java runtime library(Boone & Kurtz,1995) It has already set up a number of channels in the telephone market that has only added to the market value of the product Google has been providing the service of free Wifi for the entire cities and the public areas which has led to its popularity among the various groups and the common public in general. It has led to very good public relations that have only resulted in the fostering of the growth.(Boon,2003) Google has entered
Sunday, September 8, 2019
Cross Cultural Communication and Business Management - Term Paper Example When manages successfully, it brings economic benefits. For organizations that send managers on foreign assignments. The cost can be high, as those managers need to adjust to their new environment. Cross-cultural effective communication is useful and worthy which can deal with conflicts that arise within multicultural. What would the ideal manager of international operations look like The ideal manager would have a "very good command of several languages and knowledge of and sympathy for several cultures" ( Hedlund 1986: 31 ). Some authors argue that these managers must become cosmopolitans, to grow beyond cultural limitations ( Harris and Moran 2000). To be "cosmopolitan", according to Webster's Third New International Dictionary, a manager must "be marked by interest in, familiarity with, or knowledge and appreciation of many parts of the world: not provincial, local, limited, or restricted by the attitudes, interests, or loyalties of a single region, section, or sphere of activity: worldwide rather than regional, parochial, or narrow." As if this were not asking enough of an international manager, Harris and Moran also distinguish between cosmopolitans and global managers. Global managers are cosmopolitans who have an additional facility for making appropriate business decisions anywhere that they operate. Given the near impossibility of either finding or developing such a manager, is it any wonder that we encounter firms of all types and classes making costly blunders in their foreign operations Business people today face an increasing range of culturally diverse situations. To ensure success in business, many organizations are using cross-cultural communication to improve their manager's cross-cultural effectiveness and enhance their communication skills. In a diverse workplace, there are many cultures collide. Many culture norms influence a manager's behavior and subsequent reactions (Gardenswartz L. and Rowe A., 2001).Ã
Saturday, September 7, 2019
Gender stereotypes in the media - Essay Example When analyzing several commercials from Gender Stereotype (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cSIEXtDElOM), specific roles can be seen that are based on expectations of each gender. The first set of gender stereotypes presented in the first commercial show a distinct difference between the masculine and feminine roles. The male is seen working at a computer, which implies the function that men are supposed to have in society. When the woman comes into the room, she immediately begins undressing and getting into lingerie. Throughout the commercial, the woman represents the sex object that is able to entice men. Even though she walks in with a business suit, it becomes secondary to the lingerie. The masculine role is furthered by this when the sexual representation of the woman is able to interrupt the work that the man is doing in the commercial. More importantly, other men that see this on the webcam show the appeal to the sex object and the concept of men is based on the corporate and work figure. The second commercial that is used implies the same concepts about gender stereotype. The female figure is again seen as a sexual object through the lack of actions that she takes. She is seen bathing in the sun with a skimpy bikini and is unaware of what is occurring around her. The male is in the background with a fake lawn mower, which he is using to watch the woman. The gender role of the woman is based on creating a specific sexual object and figure, while the male looking at the female implies a working man that can easily be distracted or changed by watching the opposite sex. The third commercial holds to the same gender stereotypes that are incorporated in the media. There are several women that are seen throughout the commercial. Each are wearing shorter dresses, even with the work clothes that they are wearing. The size and figure of each of the women is a skinnier look, with
Friday, September 6, 2019
Physical education Essay Introduction Recent educational changes have spurred the need for assessment within the Physical Education field. Although it has always been part of the instructional process Ã¢â¬â Plan, Teach, Evaluate -it has not received the attention of many physical educators until recently. In the past it was not necessary to use assessment techniques for several reasons. Educators were not required to provide information on student performance to anyone. Both practicality of useful instruments and time needed to complete such assessments appeared to take away from the more relevant parts of teaching. In addition, professionals in the physical education field were not required to have defined learning outcomes for their students. Today, with the increased emphasis on accountability, physical education teachers in New Hampshire must rethink the place of assessment within their programs. The newly revised NH STANDARDS for Public School Approval (Ed 306 Ã¢â¬â effective 7/1/2005) addresses assessment in physical education as part of section 306. 41. It states: In the area of physical education, the local school board shall require that each school physical education provides: Sound assessment practices in physical education that: 1. Match goals and objectives; 2. Require evaluation and synthesis of knowledge and skills; 3. Emphasize higher-order thinking skills; 4. Clearly indicate what the student is asked to do; 5. Are at an appropriate skill level according to: a. State standard; and b. The needs of the individual; 6. Have criteria that are clear to students and teachers; 7. Are engaging and relevant to students; 8. Link to ongoing instruction; 9. Provide feedback to students; 10. Provide cost-effective benefits to students; 11. Reflect real-world situations; and 12. Emphasize use of available knowledge and skills in relevant problem contexts. In addition, assessment plays a key role in Follow the Child, a recently established New Hampshire Department of Education initiative, under the leadership of Commissioner Lyonel B. Tracy. This initiative, offered to New Hampshire schools and districts, helps schools foster student aspirations to promote student success through an emphasis on personalized learning and assessment and focuses on measuring student growth through all areas of each childÃ¢â¬â¢s life. To become a Follow the Child designated district, the school administrative unit (SAU) must show a commitment to several beliefs including the use of continuous assessment strategies. Therefore, it is imperative that physical education teachers are knowledgeable about assessment and utilize sound practices. 6 What is Assessment? Assessment refers to the process of testing and evaluating students to determine progress towards program goals. It is an important part of any sound physical education program because it helps teachers to measure studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ current levels of ability, progress, and their own teachingÃ effectiveness. A quality assessment model in physical education involves: 1. formally stating the instructional objectives (cognitive, psychomotor, affective) 2. pre-assessing the students 3. measuring the achievement of objectives using valid and reliable tests during and after the delivery of appropriate instructional activities 4. evaluating student progress towards meeting the objectives 7 What are the Principles that Guide Assessment? A quality assessment model is based on three principles: 1. Establish appropriate instructional objectives using national, state, and local standards or guidelines. 2. Select/use appropriate measures to determine student progress towards meeting instructional objectives. Assessment can take many forms. Both formal and informal tools can be used. (See Ã¢â¬Å"What are the Approaches to Assessment? Ã¢â¬ ) 3. Develop an evaluation scheme that reflects the attainment of instructional objectives. While grading is part of the evaluation scheme, it should not be the only outcome. (See Ã¢â¬Å"What is the Relationship between Assessment and Grading? Ã¢â¬ ) 8 What Do the Components of an Effective Assessment Measure? For an assessment measure to be effective, it needs to include: 1.validity Ã¢â¬â Does it measure what it claims to measure? There needs to be agreement between what the assessment measures and the performance, skill, or behavior the assessment is designed to measure. For example, if a test is designed to measure cardiovascular endurance, one must be confident it does so. It is important to remember that validity is specific to a particular use and group. An assessment might be valid for one age group, but not valid for a different age group. 2. reliability Ã¢â¬â Does it measure consistently? A reliable assessment should obtain approximately the same results regardless of the numberÃ of times it is given. For example, an assessment given to a group of students on one day should yield approximately the same results if it is given to the same group on another day. 3. objectivity Ã¢â¬â Does the measurement yield highly similar results when administered by others? For example, an assessment has high objectivity when two or more people can administer the same assessment to the same group and obtain approximately the same results. 4. feasibility Ã¢â¬â Is the measure straightforward and easy to set up and administer? The following administrative considerations may help one determine the feasibility of anÃ assessment. a) Cost: does the assessment require expensive equipment that one does not have or cannot afford to purchase? b) Time: does the assessment take too much instructional time? c) Ease of administration: Does one need assistance to administer the assessment? If so, how will these people be trained? Are the instructions easy to follow? Is the assessment reasonable in the demands that are placed on those being assessed? d) Scoring: If another person is needed to help administer the assessment, will it affect the objectivity of the scoring? (For example: A person is needed to pitch the ball toÃ the hitter in a softball hitting assessment. ) 5. usefulness Ã¢â¬â Can the results be used for valid educational purposes such as self-appraisal, program planning, or reporting progress? For example: A worksheet is given to a student so one can demonstrate knowledge of skills/games. The results could provide to the student an idea of how much is known about skills/games (self-appraisal), to determine where in the lesson this information should be covered (program planning), and/or as part of calculating students grades (reporting progress). 9 What Are the Purposes of Assessment? 1. Student Learning: Assessment is a way for educators to measure progress, strengths, and areas of growth. Many teachers assess their students using a pre-test, mid-term, and post- test to gauge student learning. This may take place throughout a unit or the entire school year. 2. Improvement of Teaching: Teachers use assessment to determine what is effective in their teaching practices; what is working and what needs improvement. A variety of assessment tools may be used in order to determine what types of instruction are most beneficial in meeting the needs of students. 3. Communication: Assessment should serve as a means of communication between educators, students, administrators, and parents. Parents and students often look at assessment to see WHAT is being learned, HOW progress is being measured, and the TYPE of instruction being received. Educators and administrators use assessment to evaluate teaching practices and to determine if there are gaps in the curriculum. 4. Program Evaluation: Assessment can prove a good measure of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s program, revealing evidence of the effectiveness of that program, throughout the year, assessment can offerÃ direction to the program and modifications can be made to increase both student and instructional success. 5. Program Support: Consistent assessment can be used to validate oneÃ¢â¬â¢s program. Data gained is objective and can show evidence of goals and objectives being met by both student and teacher. With clear data presented, a strong measure of program support may follow. 6. Motivation: Assessment shows progress. When improvement is shown, students feel Positive about their learning environment. Documented assessment can offer proof of growth, thus enhancing studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ motivation to perform to the best of their ability. 10 What Should be Assessed? The Three Domains of Learning Throughout a childÃ¢â¬â¢s development there are three domains of learning that exist in order to educate the whole child. Psychomotor, cognitive, and the affective domains give meaning to learning. These are essential in allowing a child to explore the learning environment and obtain as much information about the world as possible. The three Domains are: 1. Psychomotor- The performance component; exploring oneÃ¢â¬â¢s environment and gaining skills throughout the process. 2. Cognitive-The knowledge component; thinking, associating experiences with learning. 3. Affective-Personal and social development. Providing children with opportunities to interact with others in order to gain a sense of themselves and those around them. Incorporation of the 3 Domains in Physical Education According to David Gallahue, in physical education the three domains are interwoven to give meaning to movement. When children understand WHY their body functions the way it does (cognitive), they can begin to attain skill competency (psychomotor) and associate positive feelings with physical activity (affective). a. Psychomotor domain -the heart of physical education is developing competent motor skill abilities. b. Cognitive domain- an understanding of movement concepts and principles that allow children to become more efficient movers and learners through movement. c. Affective domain Ã¢â¬â development of acceptable social and personal behaviors in physical activity settings that allow for a productive learning environment with students working responsibly both individually and as members of a group. Assessment of the Three Domains in Physical Education When assessing the psychomotor domain, one is measuring the development of motor skills and health related fitness. For example, at the primary level, students demonstrate skipping byÃ performing the skill using the step, hop pattern or at the intermediate level, students participate in the FitnessGram assessment program. When assessing the cognitive domain, one is measuring student knowledge of movement concepts, principles, strategies and tactics. For example, at the middle school level students articulate the skill pattern of the underhand throw (Ã¢â¬Å"ready, swing back, step, follow throughÃ¢â¬ ) or describe a strategy used to defend territory during an activity. 11 When assessing the affective domain, one is measuring the development of acceptable social and personal behaviors in physical activity settings. For example, at the high school level, students fill out a self reflection about their performance, complete a peer evaluation or identify, follow and, when appropriate, create safety guidelines for participation in physical activity settings. 12 What Are the Approaches to Assessments? What is Formal and Informal Assessment? Teachers can collect information using either formal or informal evaluation. Formal assessment is usually standardized. This standardization allows the teacher to interpret student performance and provides an objective way to assess learning. Informal assessment, sometimes termed alternative/authentic assessment, often relies on observation techniques. What is Traditional Assessment? The term traditional assessment is used to describe the means of gathering information on student learning through techniques such as multiple-choice, fill-in-the-blank, and matching questions, as well as essays. These approaches are particularly useful in assessing studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ knowledge of information, concepts, and rules. They are also appropriate for assessing studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ knowledge of the terms and processes involved in a career. Because factual knowledge of information is one important aspect of applied technology, carefullyÃ designed multiple-choice and matching questions can enable the teacher to quickly assess student mastery of content knowledge. However, an effective assessment evaluates knowledge of facts as well as the connection to a broader body of knowledge. Proficiency in applied technology depends on the ability to know and integrate facts about all aspects of industry into useful constructs. What is Alternative Assessment? Teachers from all academic fields are now being held accountable for the performance of their students. This level of accountability requires teachers to document student learning. In addition toÃ traditional assessment, more physical education teachers are incorporating Ã¢â¬Å"real-lifeÃ¢â¬ learning in their classes. These alternative or authentic assessments focus on the use of what is learned in real- life settings. Ã¢â¬Å"Alternative assessment techniques can be applicable to using assessment as a Ã¢â¬Å"learning experienceÃ¢â¬ that is part of the instructional process rather than something that is Ã¢â¬Å"done toÃ¢â¬ students (Rink, 2006). Alternative assessment takes time. The teacher must balance the need for reliable and valid information against the practical issues involved in limited program time and too many students. Yet these assessments are gaining in popularity because they tend to focus on more meaningful Ã¢â¬Å"real-lifeÃ¢â¬ learning. Authentic assessment focuses on the use of what is learned in real-life settings. Alternative assessments techniques can be used for all of the learning domains and are most applicable to using assessment as a Ã¢â¬Å"learning experienceÃ¢â¬ that is part of the instructional process. Most alternative assessment relies heavily on the assessor making a judgment about some performance. This performance could be about a physical skill or ability, an affective or cognitive behavior. 13 What are the Different Types of Assessment that are Used in Physical Education? Many types of assessments can be used by educators to collect information and provide students with a variety of learning experiences. The following are a few types of assessments used in physical education. After each type, the approach (formal or informal) is noted in italics. . Observation is one of the most common forms of assessment used in physical education. Observational data is a useful form of assessment for the teacher to assess student performance. It is also one of the most useful self and peer assessment activities. When the students are provided a set of criteria to assess their performance or the performance of others, they are learning what is important in what you are trying to teach them and learn to focus their efforts on improvement. (Rink, 2006). An example of each assessment noted below has been placed in Appendix I. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Checklist: associate with observation data; used to identify a particular behavior or characteristic of performance with established criteria. Informal Ã¢â¬ ¢ Performance task: are meaningful Ã¢â¬Å"culminatingÃ¢â¬ experiences that can be accomplished within a single instructional period. Examples would include a dance routine, warm-up routine, locomotor skill sequences, skit, role playing, and oral report. Informal Ã¢â¬ ¢ Rating scale: associated with observation data; determines degree Informal Ã¢â¬ ¢ Record of performance: Ã¢â¬ËSnapshotÃ¢â¬â¢ of performance from daily tasks (i. e. win/loss, fitness scores, skill assessments) Formal Ã¢â¬ ¢ Rubric: used to assess complex behavior; a multidimensional rating scale. Formal Ã¢â¬ ¢ Student interview, survey and questionnaire: used to gather information on student thinking and feeling. Informal Ã¢â¬ ¢ Student journal: are often used as a Ã¢â¬Å"notebookÃ¢â¬ where students are asked to reflect on theirÃ performance/ express their feelings, perceptions and attitudes about their experiences in physical education. Informal Ã¢â¬ ¢ Student log: Establish a record of participation or some other behavior or characteristic over time. Formal Ã¢â¬ ¢ Student project: designed as a learning and assessment experience. Students are asked to investigate, design/construct, and present their work in some form. Formal Ã¢â¬ ¢ Written test/worksheet: Is the most common form of assessment in all content areas. It is considered the best way for teachers to determine student knowledge. Formal A portfolio has not been listed above as a type of student assessment. Although it may mean many things to some, within this document a portfolio is considered a representative collection of learning over time. It should demonstrate progress and learning. Students today are part of a highly technological world. Therefore, assessments might include audio-visuals (posters, white boards, easels) and computer-assisted techniques (i. e. mind mapping, imovies, powerpoint, movement skill videos). These knowledge or performance assessments can be compiled in an electronic portfolio that would demonstrate learning over time. 14 Types of Student Assessment Used in Physical Education. There are many types of assessments that can be used by teachers to collect information. The type of assessment chosen needs to match the student learning goals. The chart on the following page is an attempt to provide several examples of both traditional and alternative assessments. The format was modified from the following resource: Hopple, C. J. (1995). Teaching for outcomes in elementary physical education. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetic 15 TYPES of STUDENT ASSESSMENT Traditional Approaches Alternative Approaches Teacher Generated Student Products Written Tests/Worksheets Selected Response. Formats Limited Open-ended Formats Audio/visual Written Performance Tasks Responses selected from given alternatives Brief, written response constructed Generated for exhibition/display Written response generated Physical or cognitive behaviors Multiple-choice Open response Banner Essay, story, poem Skit / role playing True false Short answer Photo exhibit Research paper Officiate a game Matching /association Label diagram Artwork Ã¢â¬â black white Anecdotal Fitness assessment Corrective true false Fill-in-the- blank Videotape Student journal Debate Concept maps Personal fitness plan Oral report. Poster Student log Instruct a lesson Powerpoint Advertisement Interview imovie Brochure Showcase Audiotape Checklist Movement sequence Ã¢â¬â dance, gymnastics, locomotor, etc. Rating Scale Warm-up routine Rubric Ã¢â¬â teacher, peer, self Game play Model of athlete (clay, styrofoam) Record of performance Newspaper Magazine construction Reflection Student project Pre-assessment inventory Student survey, interview, questionnaire Editorial 16 Who Should Assess and Who Can Assess? There are a number of potential ways to assess within physical education. In order for assessment to be successful, it must be practical. The following will identify some ideas and suggestions that can make assessment feasible, useful, and meaningful for both the learner and teacher. Assessment can be completed by the teacher, student, or peer. The more traditional model where the teacher is assessing is often not feasible from a practical perspective. However, if one of the teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s objectives is to plan and provide opportunities that result in student responsibility, then it appears logical to involve students in the assessment process whenever appropriate. Self Assessment: Self assessment can be used throughout the instructional process. This providesÃ both a quick and practical way for the teacher to collect information. Student progress can be recorded using one or more of the following tools Ã¢â¬â student journal, notebook, index cards Ã¢â¬â that are completed and submitted to the teacher. Teacher Assessment: Simple checklists, rating scales, and/or rubrics can be used by teacher to assess student performance. In addition, the use of technology in the classroom or gymnasium can be used to assess student performance and student behavior. The videotape, CD and DVD can be viewed at a later time. Peer Assessment: With clear directions from the teacher, peers can collect information that canÃ indicate student progress. Again, checklists, rating scales, or rubrics can provide criteria for making judgments. Peer assessment requires students to focus on the criteria, allowing them to develop observation skills. For peer assessment to be effective, the teacher needs to teach the observational process. 17 When Should Assessment Occur? ssessment should occur on a continuous basis throughout the year. Assessment used prior to instruction (pre-assessment) could provide information about the students and help establish learning objectives. Assessment used during instruction can provide feedback to both the teacherÃ and students. Finally, assessment at the end of instruction (post assessment) can determine if learning objectives were met and/or if changes or more work in a particular area is warranted. 1. Formative versus Summative: a. Formative Assessment is done continuously throughout the learning and instruction period. This type of assessment provides feedback that can be used to alter, fine-tune, or modify what has been done. Both teacher and student can use the information gained to improve either teaching practices or learning methods. Traditionally, this is not graded but used as a diagnostic tool. b. Summative Assessment occurs at the end of the learning unit. Ã¢â¬Å"The purpose of summative assessment is to measure how well students have learned key content and skills as defined by the unitÃ¢â¬â¢s learning goals and objectivesÃ¢â¬ (http://www. state. ct. us/sde/dtl/ta/seminarseries/online_seminars/phys_ed/4. htm) 2. Pre-Assessment versus Post Assessment: a. Pre-assessment tools are used at the beginning of instruction. Results from pre- assessment are used as a basis for setting reasonable and attainable goals. This allows teachers and students to identify and work on areas that need improvement. b Post assessment tools are used at the end of the learning unit to evaluate student progress and achievement. The post assessment results can be compared to the pre assessment results to measure how well individual students have mastered content and skills and to evaluate the effectiveness of instruction. c. Some of the assessment tools may be used for both pre-assessment and post assessment. For example, the Fitnessgram can be administered in the fall (as a pre-assessment) to help establish health-related fitness goals. Then it could be given again in the spring (as a post assessment) to measure process toward established goals. 18 Where Should One Begin? Using performance tasks for assessment: A performance task is a type of performance assessment in which students physically perform the skill or desired product to be assessed. If one chooses to use performance tasks for assessment the following suggestions should be kept in mind: 1. Choose a task that fits the level and is realistic for both teacher and students. 2. To begin, only assess 1-2 specific classes until becoming familiar with the process. 3. Find performance tasks that can be used to assess outcomes from more than one unit. 4. Use performance tasks for formal and informal assessment. 5. Use assessment stations, when possible. That way one can focus attention on fewer students at a time. 6. Record the names of students who do not perform the task (usually there are fewer). 7. When planning units, specifically plan for assessment time. Do not wait until the last minute to think about assessment. Using portfolio tasks for assessment: Portfolios provide teachers with an authentic form of assessment. They can be used by teachers and students to see progress over time. Physical education teachers need to adapt the use of portfolio tasks to their unique classroom setting. Useful strategies to do this include: 1. Portfolios need to last over time. Therefore, they need to be sturdy enough to handle a variety of papers. Students can personalize them, if desired. Make sure their names (last name, first name) are written in a common, visible place on the portfolio. 2. Decide what should go into the portfolio. This could be a combination of in- class and out-f-class work. Examples might include fitness scores, skill checklists, journal logs, fitness logs, reflections, and worksheets. 3. Store the portfolios by class in a crate or box with handles. Store them in an accessible place. 4. Develop a protocol for students to use when submitting work. 5. Make sure to plan time to review the work in the portfolios. 6. Begin using portfolios with 1-2 classes. In the beginning portfolio tasks may not be necessary for every unit. 19 How Do I Manage This Thing Called Assessment? Management is crucial in implementing any assessment strategy. Establishing assessment protocols will save teachers time and effort. The first step in effective management of assessment is to develop, teach, support students in practicing assessment protocols. Scheimer (1999) stated that assessment protocols provide students with an organized method for obtaining the assessment materials (i. e., paper, pencil, or portfolio), selecting a private area in the gym to complete the assessment, and collecting the materials at the end of the assessment episode. Examples of assessment protocols include: 1. distributing assessment materials 2. collecting assessments 3. ensuring names and dates on papers 4. arranging assessment materials (when teaching back to back classes) 5. dealing with insufficient assessment materials 6. accommodating nonreaders and/or non-English speaking students 7. accommodating students with special needs The following are suggestions for assessment protocols that have been used by effective teachers,Ã both within the context of physical education and regular classroom teachers. Each protocol can have its drawbacks Ã¢â¬â experimentation may lead to perfection. Each protocol may need to be modified depending upon the number of students, age/grade of students and use of student aides. Distributing Assessment Materials The key to this assessment protocol is getting the students involved. A class can be divided into smaller groups (no more than 8 students per group). Each group then has a specific equipment area where the necessary assessment materials (as well as the equipment needed for that lesson) are located. Before class begins, the teacher places the necessary assessment materials (and/or equipment) in each equipment area. When it is time to work with the assessment materials (and/or equipment), students go to their groupÃ¢â¬â¢s equipment area, select the materials (and/or equipment) needed, and return to their designated work space. Collecting Assessments The teacher uses a moveable filing cabinet containing folders with identified markings as tabs. These 25Ã¢â¬ x 15Ã¢â¬ systems hold approximately 300 folders, depending on the amount of information collected. It is the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ responsibility to submit or remove papers from the class or personalÃ student folder as requested by the teacher. Within each personal folder, files can be categorized by color paper inserts. 20 Ensuring Names and Dates on Papers To keep accurate track of submitted papers, have students write their name or school code, date, and class on each paper. The teacher can fill in the information for students who are absent as this will help keep track of students who have not completed assessments. Arranging Assessment Materials When Teaching Back to Back Classes One of the easiest ways to organize materials is to color code them. Use different colored folders for each class/grade level. Place the assessment worksheets and/or record keeping sheets to be used for that class/grade in each folder. Teachers can help students learn to find the correct folder for their class and take the materials from it. Dealing with Insufficient Assessment Materials Due to the tightness of school budgets, money is often focused on equipment and curriculum rather than materials needed for assessment. However, there are ways to deal with this situation if a teacher is inventive and frugal. Paper: Use recycled paper (one side) and cutting the paper in half or quarters (elementary). Provide a notebook or white lined paper specifically for physical education (secondary). Use chalk boards/ dry erase boards with the teacher making notations on a separate sheet. Writing utensils: Often times at the end of the year, teachers give away crayons that are no longer part of a complete set. Check with the custodians who frequently have collected a bucketful of pencils and pens as they clean the buildings after school. Upper level students may be asked to provide their own pencils or if stations are used, students can share writing implements. In addition, do not be afraid to ask business or community groups for help. Getting two or three boxes of pencils and a ream of paper may be sufficient to use for assessment annually. Accommodating Nonreader and/or Non-English Speaking Students The ideal would be to have a tutor and/or translator in the gymnasium, however, not all schools budget for this. However, since visual models are a key component in helping these students, the following could be used: A. large pictures posted on the walls B. large words with phonetic break downs C. the English alphabet posted on the walls D. flash cards E. teacher/student mirroring F. peer mirroring 21 Accommodating Students with Special Needs. Each studentÃ¢â¬â¢s Individualized Education Plan (IEP) should be reviewed for necessary accommodations. When a paraprofessional is available, he/she should guide students using a variety of specific modifications as specified in the IEP to access the curriculum and assist in assessment. Consultation with the physical education teacher is critical in this process. When a paraprofessional is not available, the physical educator should utilize the identified modifications as outlined in each studentÃ¢â¬â¢s IEP for both program development and student assessment. These may include the use of adaptive equipment and/or peer partners for guidance toÃ assist the student. 22 What is Grading? Grading reports a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s level of performance and usually includes many assessment measures. Grades are useful for evaluating individual student performance. Grading can be used to motivate students and help them understand that learning is important. Grades provide students and parents with feedback regarding progress and achievement. In addition, grades may provide insight for teachers about instructional planning and for administrative purposes. Grades are needed for student rank, credits, and promotion. 23 What is the Relationship between Assessment and Grading? Assessment is information gathered that examines what has been taught, practiced and learned. Many different assessment techniques may be used to evaluate studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ progress. Grading is a report on studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ level of performance. Goals and objectives should be set prior to assessment used for grading. The studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ grade should reflect a level of achievement compared to the objectives. Assessment reflects performance; grading attaches value to performance. 24 New Hampshire Curriculum Guidelines/Objectives Alignment with Assessment Examples . Curriculum Guideline 1: Engages in a physically active lifestyle Since Guideline 1.