Saturday, August 31, 2019
Theory of Knowledge Name: Rigved Sawant Topic: Ã¢â¬ËRole of language and reasoning in History. Ã¢â¬â¢ What is history? History, as anyone would know is the study of the human past. It can also mean the period of time after which writing was found. It is a field of research which uses a chronological pattern to examine and analyze the sequence of events and it also very minutely determines the cause and effect of such events. Those who study or researches in history are called historians. For them to have clear knowledge of language to be used history is very important. What I mean to say is that language has an exceptional place in history. Language was and still is a vital tool for better communication. It not only conveys thoughts, ideas, but forges friendship, cultural ties, etc. Throughout history many have reflected on the importance of language in history. For example, the scholar Benjamin Whorf has noted that language shapes thoughts and emotions, determining oneÃ¢â¬â¢s perception of reality. Without proper use of language we cannot convey our thoughts effectively. Language is very relevant to understand history. History is subjective based on who is telling it and language is the Ã¢â¬ËtellerÃ¢â¬â¢. For example, the history of slavery; from the slave masterÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view slavery for him will be according to the language he uses to describe it. He would use a language which will describe chattel, property, free labor, political advantage. But for a slave, it would be the other way round. The language he would use would be of degradation, sorrow, pain humiliation, torture. Two different perspectives of the same event. Look at the Holocaust, the language used by a Jew to describe the events during the world war 2 will be different from a language a German soldier of the third Reich would use. As time progressed some of the important languages in which also many of the ancient artifacts were written have diminished. People donÃ¢â¬â¢t understand the importance of such languages. For example, Sanskrit, it was or I would like to put it as it still is the most prominent language of all times. Many of the modern languages were evolved from this language alone. Such artifacts are also tampered and their language could be misused. Historians have to take care of the language they use while making their claims. Reason or the faculty of reason is a mental ability found in human beings. We normally give reasons to things we claim. Reason is the means by which rational beings meaning human beings give explanation concerning cause and effect, true or false. It also explains or justifies some event or phenomenon. Through arguments and proper means of reasoning we can justify our thoughts. Reason can change our beliefs, traditions and attitude. Same like in language we also have to reason correctly to support our claims. Reasoning is very important for historians. If proper reasoning is not provided by them no one would believe their works. When people have different perspectives the essence of the true reasons gets lost in the altering of the tale being told which is clouded by different perceptions. History has being significant in being biased throughout, from beginning of mankind. One cannot say that there was no reason for the events that had catastrophic effects that dehumanized our civilization. History gets lost in translation as we may not know what actually happened. There have always been different versions to the same story but the fact remains the same; History has always been altered. For example, books published in India say that Akbar was a great king, whereas books published in Pakistan say that he wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t a great king. Holy books of India have also been tampered while being translated. Although history has been proven wrong many times it wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be possible to evolve into this era of technology without the prior knowledge of human civilization.
With reference to the Oxford English Dictionary (2012), ethics is described as the science of morals. It is also the agency of study with regards to the values of moral obligations of what is right or wrong. It also covers human behaviour. A company makes many decisions in a course of one day. It may include, launching new products, doing Public Relations, making sales, rewriting company policies and the recruitment or retrenchment of people, just to name a few. All business aims to do so ethically. To conduct business ethically, a business must first commit to adhering to laws and regulation (Timms, 2009). These are clearly defined, as they are in black and white. However, once the definition of what is ethical becomes contested, ethical dilemmas will arise. An ethical dilemma occurs when there is a situation which all alternate choices and behaviours have been deemed undesirable, and that there may be potential ethical consequences when one is unable to identify the right from the wrong. An example of an ethical dilemma is of follows, where one faces a conflict between his ethical code and his business aims. Cadbury, the chocolate producer, was offered a contract by Queen Victoria to send decorative tins of chocolates to every single one of her soldiers in the Anglo-Boer war in South Africa (Andrews, 1989). However, since he was against the war, which resulted in him deciding to resolve this conflict by completing the order without profit. According to Sir Adrian Cadbury (1987), his grandfather Ã¢â¬Å"made no profit out of what he saw as an unjust war. The additional work benefitted his employees, the royal presents consisting of tins of chocolates were sent to the soldiers, and it was a win-win situation. In a business, there are 3 levels of ethics: the ethics of the governing body, workplace ethics and individual ethics (Trevina & Nelson, 2011). A governing body usually is made up of a board of directors, whose aim in the company is to make good corporate practices easier and more available for employees. They too must drive and motivate employees to strive for good performance, conformance and results. Workplace ethics are important, as it ensures a conducive and supportive environment to work in. There must be equal treatment among and within subgroups, open communication between levels, and information must be transparent and readily available. Individual ethics is affected by four complementary elements. Individuals must be able to identify ethical issues; recognise the values and priorities through their grasping of principles, rules, norms and theories; developing their individual sets of reasoning and perception; and improving the strength of one to act upon such decisions (Trevina & Nelson, 2011). Before a difficult decision is made, the shareholder or the manager has to think a problem though. One way to do so is using KidderÃ¢â¬â¢s Ethical Checkpoints (2006). He has 9 checkpoints which he feels will lead to an ethical decision being made. First, the manager needs to recognise that there is a moral issue. After determining the actor, he has to gather the relevant facts. Next, he tests for right-versus-wrong issues as well as paradigms. After applying resolution principles, he has to look for a third way before making the decision. After the decision is made, he has to revisit and reflect on the decision. After much research, I feel that Utilitarian approach is the most useful in guiding company decisions. I will explain why below. A decision is only ethical, according to the utilitarian principle, if it has the greatest net utility as compared to any other alternatives. As a decision maker, he must evaluate and weigh every option present to him. He must determine if there any positive or negative utilities arising from the option, before selecting the option that has the greatest net utility (Fuitzsche, 2005). It is very similar to the cost-benefit analysis used by stakeholders to consider the costs and benefits of a potential business decision. According to someone applying the utilitarian principle, a decision is only ethical if it has the greatest net utility and benefits the most people. An example of the utilitarian approach is when, during office hours, a company monitors their employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s habits like tobacco consumption, as one manÃ¢â¬â¢s actions can affect the entire workplace. A prominent example is in Singapore, where there is the Smoking (Prohibition in Certain Places) Act. This act aims to protect the public from the hazardous effects of second-hand smoke. (Smoking Prohibitions, 2012) By making sure that employees do not smoke around the office, there would potentially be less health problems, so lesser sick employees which mean improved productivity and greater yields. There are two types of utilitarianism, act and rule. Act utilitarianism targets problems in the short run while rule utilitarianism targets problems in the long run. While act utilitarianism looks at the total aftermath of a single act, rule utilitarianism looks at the repercussion over a series of acts (Fuitzsche, 2005). For example, bribing is frowned upon. An example of bribing occurred in NES China in 1998. NESÃ¢â¬â¢s government affairs co-ordinator proposed giving gifts to government officials to establish a working relationship to help get its application approved. The other members were horrified, as this was considered bribery and a criminal offence in their country (Joerg & Xin, 2009). Under act utilitarianism, if bribing means that the company will get the business contract, thus allowing the employees to keep their jobs, it is ethical. However, under rule utilitarianism, this is not the case. Bribing, thou it will work in the short run by generating business, however, in the long run, potential customers will question if you got the job through bribing or because of your superior products you are selling. Therefore bribing does not provide the greatest utility (Fuitzsche, 2005). However, the utilitarian approach does have several limitations. Therefore other ethical theories have to be used together with the utilitarian approach in making company decisions. Firstly, there will be some people who will be at a disadvantage. A decision, according to the utilitarian principle, is only ethical if it has the greatest net utility. However, increasing net utility sometimes causes serious issues and affects people negatively. One notable historic example was the construction of the Great Wall of China (Construction of the Great Wall of China, 2006). Three hundred thousand prisoners and peasants were reportedly conscripted to help construct the great wall. It is said that Ã¢â¬Ëfor every block laid down, one labourer lost his life.Ã¢â¬â¢ In terms of utilitarianism, a significant positive net utility was creates, as the great wall restricted the nomads and protected China. The Chinese citizens were safe for many years to come, at the expense of these three hundred thousand prisoners. Secondly, it is challenging estimating the results or effects of a business decision made. Also, a unit of currency gives more benefits to a poor person than to a rich person (Fuitzsche, 2005). In April 2012, all national servicemen in Singapore Armed Forces, Singapore Civil Defence Force and Singapore Police Force received a $60 p ay raise (Chua, 2012). A Recruit, who once earned $420, now earns $480, while a Lieutenant, who once earned $1120, now earns $1180. This increment would mean more to a recruit, who had a 12% pay increment, as compared to the Lieutenant, who had a 5% pay increment. It shows that it provides more utility to the poorer recruit. Therefore calculating if a decision maximises utility is difficult. Thirdly, not only are the consequences of a decision made hard to foresee, some decisions have consequences which are not easily or unable to be measured. In August, Apple manufacturer Foxconn improved on the working condition of its factory in China, such as introducing more breaks, lowering overtime, doubling wages and having better maintenance of safety equipment. (Rushe, 2012) Louis Woo, special assistant to the chief executive of Foxconn also released a statement, lamenting that reduction of overtime meant that they Ã¢â¬Ëneeded to hire more people and implement more automation, more investment on robotic enginee ringÃ¢â¬â¢ (Yip, 2012). These costs to the company are easy to determine. However, the gains in utility from these implementations are difficult to tell. Would productivity increase? Will employees be more loyal? Will turnover rate be significantly lesser? Consequences like these are hard to measure. Lastly, utility gained from these business transactions mean different things to different people (Fuitzsche, 2005). Some managers gain utility from maximising their employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s happiness. Some managers calculate utility as one which will increase their material wealth. Below I will compare utilitarian ethical theory with egoism and moral rights approach, to show that while utilitarianism has it flaws, it is still the more useful ethical theory. The utilitarian and egoism ethical theories are rather similar. Decisions made using egoism ethical theory will often provide the most favourable outcome to oneself, no matter how others around are affected (Fuitzsche, 2005). The other parties may not be harmed or disadvantages, but to the decision maker, it is of no concern. The decision maker using egoism thinks about how the proposition would involve him (Collins, 2009). If the proposition adds onto his interest, it is right. If it does not, it is wrong. However, the decision maker using utilitarianism thinks about how the preposition involves everyone affected by it. If the preposition done is advantageous to the most number of people, it is right. If it is harmful to the most number, it is wrong. Egoism is very similar to the philosophy of Adam Smith (1790). Egoism according to Smith is an excellent market allocating tool, which benefits society if one cares for their interests in the long run. Egoism usually views things in the short run, which is similar to act utilitarianism, which evaluates what happens in that one incident. However, while utilitarian considerers the total positive net utility, egoism only considers the decision makerÃ¢â¬â¢s se lf-interest. Thus decisions made using egoism would be deemed as unethical. The rights a principle gives you assured moral or human rights because you are a human being. The moral rights approach stresses that human beings have essential rights and power of choice that cannot be taken away by an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s action. Gerald Cavanagh (1990) explains six rights that he affirms are basic to business work. They include life & safety, honesty, privacy, freedom of conscience, freedom of speech and lastly private property. One example is regarding Firestone and their tires. In America, 1978, the National Highway and Transportation Safety Administration (NHTSA) began investigating the relation between FirestoneÃ¢â¬â¢s Wilderness AT tires on FordÃ¢â¬â¢s explore sport utility vehicle. The problem of FirestoneÃ¢â¬â¢s tire separation was known internally at Firestone and by the automobile manufacturers; however, instead of recalling the tires, they kept it in the market, resulting in 150 preventable deaths and 500 injuries (Henn, 2009). As facts leaked out that were damaging to both companies, they became more aggressive in its defence. Firestone appeared to have violated several human rights. The firm knew that the tyres would create a hazard to humans. And by refusing to recall its products, it violated the right to truthfulness when the truth was extremely important. Even after the whole incident was resolved, public trust in Ford wavered. According to Henn (2009), a position of trust with the public that took many years and millions of dollars to build was severely damaged. According to the utilitarianism theory, an ethical decision is one that produces the most amounts of advantages to the majority of people (Trevina & Nelson, 2011). However, according to the moral rights approach, an ethical decision is one that does not breach on the rights of another. The utilitarian approach is best for countries with high collectivism while moral rights approach is best for countries with high individualism. According to Hofstede (2007), most Asian countries scored below average on Individualism. Singapore is no different, so the utilitarian approach is more applicable in companies here. According to Johnson (2007), there is the five Ã¢â¬ËIÃ¢â¬â¢ format with regards to making decisions. A problem must first be Ã¢â¬ËidentifiedÃ¢â¬â¢, before it can be Ã¢â¬ËinvestigatedÃ¢â¬â¢. Next, one has to be Ã¢â¬ËinnovativeÃ¢â¬â¢ in coming out with many solutions. After this, a solution has to be Ã¢â¬ËisolatedÃ¢â¬â¢ and then Ã¢â¬ËimplementedÃ¢â¬â¢. Making an ethical decision is easier when one applies an ethical theory. A decision made using the utilitarian theory is ethical if it provides the greatest net utility, and produces the greatest benefit for the largest amount of people. Rules developed under utilitarianism can become a moral code to be used throughout the company. Thou it has its limitations, as it is difficult to measure utility, or figure out the consequences of a decision, and that it might not benefit everyone, but it is still better as compared to egoism or moral rights approach. Utilitarian is the most useful theory in guiding company decisions, and when used together with moral rights and egoism, it shows what it means to be ethical.
Friday, August 30, 2019
MONSOONS Topic sentence-Ã¢â¬Å"This essay will focus upon the both the beneficial and the detrimental impacts of monsoonal weather systems in the Asia pacific region. Ã¢â¬ INTRODUCTION: paragraph 0 * Monsoons are an annually recurring weather phenomenon, triggered by the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s tilt in relation to the sun. Although they return every year, it is still impossible to tell the timing, duration, and quantity of rain each season, a fact that leaves impacted areas without accurate storm information * The major monsoon systems of the world consist of the West African and Asia-Australian monsoons. The wind generally blows for six months from the northeast and six months from the southwest. * A major wind system that seasonally reverses its directionÃ¢â¬âsuch as one that blows for approximately six months from the northeast and six months from the southwest. The most prominent monsoons occur in South Asia, Africa, Australia, and the Pacific coast of Central America. Monsoonal ten dencies also are apparent along the Gulf Coast of the United States and in central Europe; however, true monsoons do not occur in those regions. ORIGINS: paragraph 1 Strengthening of the Asian monsoon has been linked to the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau after the collision of the Indian sub-continent and Asia around 50 million years ago.  Many geologists believe the monsoon first became strong around 8 million years ago based on records from the Arabian Sea and the record of wind-blown dust in the Loess Plateau of China. More recently, plant fossils in China and new long-duration sediment records from the South China Sea led to a timing of the monsoon starting 15-20 million years ago and linked to early Tibetan uplift. 10] Testing of this hypothesis awaits deep ocean sampling by the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program STRUCTURE: paragraph 1 CAUSES/PROCESS: paragraph 2 * SUMMER MONSOONS: When the Sun rays fall on the Earth, they get reflected by the land and cause heating of the air present above it. The water sources like oceans, rivers, etc. , absorb this heat from the air, due to which the air present above these water sources is relatively cool. * Example is the zone of Asia, where major part of the northern hemisphere is land and southern hemisphere is ocean.During summers, the Earth makes a perfect angle with the Sun; as a result, the Sun rays directly strike on the northern hemisphere landmass. These Sun rays get reflected and cause warming of the air. This hot air rises up into the atmosphere and the cooler air of the southern hemisphere from the ocean rush to fill the gap. This cool air contains moisture which is the main source of summer rains in Asia. This process is known as summer monsoon or southwest monsoon. * WINTER MONSOONS: Sun rays are more dominant at the southern hemisphere. They are completely reverse of summer monsoons as the lands are cooler than the oceans.The air circulation is completely opposite as the warm air moves from ocean to l and and cold air move from land to ocean. This cold air entraps the moisture when they pass over the tropical waters and releases the moisture over northern Australia, Sri Lanka, the Indian coast and Indonesia. They are also known as north-east monsoons. IMPACTS: paragraph3 * Over 60% of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s population depend on monsoon rains, but despite their regularity, there are year-to-year variations which place enormous strain on food and water resources. * Food production in seasonally arid areas is inherently risky.By the end of the dry season, the soil is parched and planting cannot begin until the rains arrive. A late or weak monsoon can lead to a short r poor growing season and hence low yields, as happened during the drought of 1987. An excessively strong monsoon can be just as detrimental. For example, in Pakistan, heavy rain during September 1992 flooded cotton plantations and caused the crop to fail. Agricultural failure has a profound effect on the economy of monsoon- affected countries, such as India, where farming accounts for 30% of the gross domestic product and 67% of the workforce.BENEFITS: paragraph3 * The benefits of monsoon rain are immense Ã¢â¬â they provide water for a country whose dry, arid climate destroys and dries out the water supply. In the hotter and drier months of the year in India, people are sometimes forced to travel by foot for miles just to get clean water for their families. Some just collapse from heat stroke and lack of energy. The monsoons change this Ã¢â¬â the water from the monsoon rain saves lives. DESTRUCTIVE POTENTIAL: paragraph3 * Monsoons can put communities in danger.The winds can knock down trees and even do some damage to people's houses or buildings Ã¢â¬â windows may be broken and trees may fall on houses. The floods also cause people serious problems. People may be walking down the street, wading through waist-deep water. The floods from the extreme rain can spread bacteria as well. The dirty wat er that hundreds of other people have been wading through can be a good breeding ground for harmful bacteria and it helps spread deadly diseases. Mosquitoes breed in water, so there might be an over-population of mosquitoes that can carry diseases, as well.EXAMPLES: paragraph 4 STATISTICS: paragraph 5 Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Monsoon Statistics| | No. | Year | Average rain in millimeter in Bharuch headquarter| Average rain in millimeter in districts| 1| 1998 | 1089 | 910 | 2 | 1999 | 523 | 397. 37 | 3 | 2000 | 533 | 389. 25 | 4 | 2001 | 857 | 614. 87 | 5 | 2002 | 1023 | 714. 37 | 6 | 2003 | 872 | 806 | 7 | 2004 | 1062 | 783 | 8 | 2005 | 826 | 889 | 9 | 2006 | 963 | 914. 8 | 10 | 2007 | 1487 | 900 | | | | http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Monsoon http://school. eb. com. au/all/eb/article-9053445? query=monsoons&ct=null http://www. uzzle. com/articles/what-causes-monsoons. html http:/ /library. thinkquest. org/C003603/english/monsoons/causesofmonsoons. shtml http://ugamp. nerc. ac. uk/promise/brochure/brochure. pdf http://indiasmonsoons. blogspot. com/ http://bharuchdp. gujarat. gov. in/bharuch/english/branches/revenue-branch/monsoon-statistic. htm STRUCTURE * INTRODUCTION * Origins (paragraph1) * Structure (Paragraph 1) * Causes/Process (paragraph2) * Impacts(paragraph3) * Benefits (paragraph3) * Destructive potential (paragraph3) * Example (paragraph 4) * Statistics (paragraph 4) * CONCLUSION
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Learning Experience Plan - Essay Example In my case, I needed an experience from operating in a nursing home. From the course I have the goal to achieve as much information and expertise as possible and create in myself a good nurse instructor. This learning experience will provide me the opportunity to apply my scholarly experience in a professional environment. My mentor gave me an overall goal of knowing how to relate to both my students and patients. Apart from this learning experience I have a future goal of operating in a renowned nursing educating institution. This goal will be given more professional support by the expertise I will gain from the learning experience. I will also aim to acquire the required skills and create a generation of skilled nurses from my class. At the end of 16 to 24 hours learning experience I will be able to acquire efficient tutoring schools from my instructor. As a nursing educator student I will be required to learn more than just acquiring medical information. I will be needed to acquir e tactics and skills to deliver lectures to student. At the end of the 16 to 24 hours learning experience I will be able to know more about the learning objectives in question. In my case, I chose ventilation pneumonia and congestive heart failure. I will be able to have the required medication and nursing tips when it comes to deal with patients diagnosed with the illnesses. An interview with my instructor pointed out my expectation from scholarships and teaching. From the scholarship expectations, I will be required to have acquired skills to enhance my career as nursing educator. To ensure I have attained these skills, I will be given a couple to tutoring classes to test my expertise and skills. Scholarships required a mandatory adherence to the 16 to 24 hours learning schedule which must be translated in writing. For the teaching and service expectations, the instructor pointed out that I had to provide educational roles to other learners in the facility. This will not only enha nce the learning skills in the nursing home but will also sharpen my skills as an educator. My instructor also had to relate the works of their nursing staff to our learning experience. Objectives for core measures protocol for congestive heart failure In this learning experience, I had to get the information to pass to my students on how to tackle this disease. Congestive heart failure is a chronic disease characterized by lapses in the normal heartbeat of humans (Ellen, Cecile & Martin, 2009). Older people have a high probability of contacting the disease. The weight of the patients also matter when it comes to detecting the symptoms. According to Nursing Skills (2012) keeping track of heartbeats of patients with the risk of having congestive heart failure help in the life saving life process since it keeps medics ready for any attack. For this learning outcome the objectives were based on the ability to suppress the effects of the disease and how to cater for patients with the di sease. For the medication, I had to learn how to interpret the ace inhibitors, diet, echo, diuretics and the beta blockers. The interpretation of these results is the main objectives and expectations for a nurse educator (Leslie, 2011). Objectives for evidence based practices for ventilator acquired pneumonia Ventilation acquired pneumonia is a respiratory disease associated with effects on the lungs. The disease causes effect on ones breathing
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Journal questions - Article Example Stories are an excellent way of attaining management objectives; however, the managers must use different narrative patterns for different aims. Discuss this statement while giving examples of occasions when managers will use a particular narrative pattern? I believe that question one provides the historical perspectives and characteristics of stories. Question two is more detailed since it requires one to understand the purpose of stories and factors that may impact on the success of the story. Question three is a better question than two since it considers the use of stories in business organisations and narrative patterns of stories. Question four is an application question that requires the learner to utilize the knowledge of use of stories in inspiring values and beliefs in organisation. Question five is also an application question that tests the overall understanding of storytelling in organisation. Personally, I believe question three is more academic and
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Web Activity 2 Twelve Tips for Team Building - Essay Example d it pretty nicely, as to how to manage these things with workable strategies and by involving all members in team discussions and giving right and opportunity to everyone to convey opinion, to come to a solution that is appropriate for the issue and group. A quick illustration of the 12 tips would give the idea that it is extremely rare that each member of the team feels as excited about the goal as the other team members. The difference is also present in the form of creativeness and innovativeness. It is thus necessary to know the expertise and the area of interest of each individual so to assign the task accordingly to maximize the teamÃ¢â¬â¢s output (Heathfield). Moreover, the communication and collaboration among the team members, as described in the article, also have a significance value when we talk about mutual understanding and collective efforts. It is to me, not possible for a team to prosper in the long run, if the members are not in active contact with each other and cannot work jointly for problem solving or for the development of the team. So it is essential to make the social bond strong among the team member so they can work for the teamÃ¢â¬â¢s goal and not their own! Another highly essential tool to make people feel more comfortable working in the team or as a part of any organization is, to make the environment more People friendly rather than a dictator type. That is to the change in the traditional Culture or attitude by which a team governs. If exceptional performances are not rewarded, people are not praised for their admirable conduct and zest, and the team lead fails to find a motivating factor for the team members, i t is quite possible that people would not put any extra efforts in their tasks and would feel de motivated, resulting in a decline in their passion and interest for the work (Heathfield). According to my understanding of this article, amongst the 12 CÃ¢â¬â¢s, the one that is the most imperative in the team building is the Control
Monday, August 26, 2019
Homework9 - Essay Example Separation of power identifies three power centers that are necessary for offering checks and balance on each other. The branches are the Congress, the executive, and the Judiciary. The President heads the executive whose roles, besides primary roles, are to offer checks and balances on the judiciary and the Congress. The Congress is the law making body in the nation and the president has the duty to assent to made laws before they can become effective and to veto laws that may be repugnant to natural justice and this ensures that only rational laws that the Congress enact govern the people. The president also plays an important role in appointment of judges through nominating them and this ensures good conduct in the judiciary. The Judiciary is also necessary because of its checks on both the executive and the Congress. Like the executive, it can declare legislation unconstitutional and therefore render it invalid and this ensures that the Congress does not just make arbitrary laws. The Judiciary can also declare actions and decision of the executive unconstitutional to minimize arbitrary authority. The congress is also necessary because of its regulatory powers over the executive such as disapproving a bill that the president prefers, passing a law contrary to the presidentÃ¢â¬â¢s veto, impeaching the president, and refusing to approve the presidentÃ¢â¬â¢s recommendations that are subject to the CongressÃ¢â¬â¢ approval. In addition, the congress is necessary for its checks over the courts such as impeachment of judges for misconduct, refusing to approve appointment of a judge, and varying jurisdiction of a judge. Federalism is also necessary for checks and balances by the federal and state governments on each other (Wilson, Dilulio and Bose 31). The nation has an inefficient political system because of the mode of appointment to the political offices.
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Online Schooling - Essay Example Teachers, parents, and educators have tried to address such issues where their students get bullied by others to an extent of affecting their school performance and finally, the idea of online learning has been taken to enhance a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s comfort and peace of learning. Also, the teachers claimed that they finally found a solution to what had been disturbing them for a very long time. Pre-college studies refer to those students aiming to join kindergarten, secondary or primary studies and are in need to study on the website. In order to fulfill the high-quality education programs, the online schools saw it wise to prepare students right from kindergartens. The program has is developed to offer an engaging and innovative way to inspire young minds of ages between three to five years so as to provide high-caliber for individualized learning options. In conclusion, education has truly changed people to the digital world. With the invention of technology in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s culture, it has become accessible and widespread that the nation has got more advantages from it with few setbacks. But all in all, with technology, comes the digital world and improved living standards. By these, Postman meant that technology neither adds nor subtracts anything, but it tends to improve the ecology. Technology has a lot in it some of which may be good and others not even considerable. He noted that it will be wise to put into consideration the required type of technology, the importance it has to the society or the targeted group and whether the benefits can outweigh the risks.
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Corporate governance, reporting and regulation - Essay Example independent directors are also appointed in order to have some added benefits in terms of additional knowledge and experience which would be useful for achieving better results by the company. There has always been a debate about the relevance of the independent directors in improving the performance of the company. This project is an attempt to identify and analyse the relevance of the independent directors in improving the organisational performance. The paper discusses the extent to which the appointment of independent director can influence the performance of the company and whether the independent director can improve the performance of the company or not. The meaning and the reasons behind the appointment of the independent directors have been studied and discussed in order to have an idea about the independent directors moreover the role and responsibilities of the independent directors have also been analysed to assess the independent directorÃ¢â¬â¢s scope in improving the organisational performance. The executive directors are employed by the company therefore the company has a control over them. The concept of the independent director came from the thought of having someone in the board who would think only for the betterment of the company without being influenced by someone. Thus the decisions taken by such person would be unbiased and free of any personal interest. Hence the independent director would be someone who cannot be controlled by the company or its management and could not interfere in the work of the independent director. Hence an independent is a director who was not an employee of the company or any of the related party of the company in the last five years. The independent director should not be the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s advisor or should not have any contract of personal service where the company or any of its related members is a party to such contract. The independent director should not be related to any non-profit organisation to which the
Friday, August 23, 2019
The banking crisis of 2007-2008 precipitated the deepest global recession since the 1930s and has led to calls for significantly - Essay Example In this case, obviously something went wrong somewhere or the signs were ignored. Part I of the paper will critically assess whether or not this crisis has fundamentally undermined the corporate governance frameworks in both the UK and USA. Part II of the paper will assess how to change the current frameworks to lessen the likelihood of a recurrence in the future. PART I: The Banking Crisis of 2007-2008 and its Impact on World Economies It all started with an excess of lending in the mortgage sector of the USA. The economy was going well and life was good. It seemed that the good times were here to last and there was no letting up. In the UK things were largely happening in a similar vein. Lending on mortgage loans had assumed alarming proportions as had consumer credit; it was said that the UK economy in 2007-2008 was the most indebted in the world (UK House Building Market Report, July 2010). Bankers were even giving housing loans to consumers whose credit history was patchy- meani ng that they had defaulted on loans in the past and were likely to default again- and pocketing fees and commissions in the process. This is called the sub-prime mortgage sector. And then it finally happened. Bankers who had previously considered even people with a bad credit history as good enough for taking a loan now began to cut back on lending in the interests of risk control and compliance. As the economy shrunk and credit dried up, bankers began to call on the sub-prime mortgages and the consumers were left with nowhere to turn to. Imagine their predicament as interest rates rose up and they had to give up their houses because they could not pay up the loan instalments. It was havoc and pandemonium in the housing sector. As the crisis deepened, the banks that had not provided adequately for bad debts in the real estate sector were adversely affected. Merrill Lynch and Lehman Brothers in the USA and Northern Rock in the UK were institutions that were brought down by the crisis ; others like Royal Bank of Scotland were forced to sell off parts of their businesses, divest and re-organize themselves. For institutions like international banks, who have diversified their investment portfolios across the world in different continents to spread risk, it was inevitable that their holdings were impacted in some way or the other. AIG and Citibank in the USA, Deutsche Bank in Europe, Citigroup in the USA and Standard Chartered in the UK were all offered stimulus packages that have helped them recover rather than join the ranks of the bankrupt companies. To date in excess of 400 small and large banks have had to bite the dust. At the Heart of the Crisis At the heart of the banking crisis lies the root cause of it all. Actually it is never one factor but a combination of factors that interact or add on to the unfolding crisis and make it inevitable. Prior to the 1930s crash was the period of the Roaring Twenties, a time of unprecedented growth and stability. People ha d borrowed against everything they had and even resorted to margin trading to take advantage of the stock market boom. It seemed that the bull market would last forever. But by July 8, 1932 the DJIA had lost 88 percent of its value and closed at 41.22, its lowest point in the 20th century. By 1933 the depression